Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This is the English translation of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Charita (literally “The lives of the sixty-three illustrious People”), a Sanskrit epic poem written by Hemachandra in the twelfth century. The work relates the history and legends of important figures in the Jain faith. These 63 persons include: the twenty four tirthankaras , the t...

Appendix 5.1: additional notes

p. 138 (8. 3. 916). I have debated long about the meaning of āsana in this connection, whether ‘withers’ or ‘howdah.’ Neither seems to fit perfectly. First I favored ‘withers.’ But “he shock his withers” seems an abnormal phrase. So in the proof I changed to ‘howdah’. In a parallel passage in the Kathākośa, p. 220, Tawney has ‘howdah.’ The original of Tawncy’s Kathākośa (ed. by J. Śāstrī, Lahore, 1942) does not help. It is as ambiguous as Hemacandra. But that is not entirely satisfactory, either, in either case, the repetition of ‘āsana,’ seems unnecessary. Also, an elephant tied to a post would not normally have a howdah. I suspect strongly that ‘spṛṣṭāsano’ should read ‘pṛṣṭhāsano,’ probably ‘pṛṣṭāsano’ in the MS. The MSS that I have used are like the text, so I do not make the emendation. It would remove all difficulty by specifying that the elephant had a howdah. “With a howdah on his back, he shook the howdah by the wind (of his running).”

P. 179 (8. 5. 418). in all the discussion of the location of Kṛṣṇa’s Dvārakā, I have not seen any reference to the Triṣaṣṭi° passages. Bhattasali (IHQ X, 541ff.) thinks there were two Dvārakās in Kṛṣṇa’s time: one “under the shadow of the Raivataka or Gomanta hill” and the other at “Mūla Dvārakā on the sea, about 22 miles east of Prabhāsapattana or Somnāth.” Hemacandra gives no indication that he has more than one place in mind, but his allusions to its location are not consistent. In 8. 5. 361 Kṛṣṇa is directed to go to the ocean-shore in the west and to found a city where Satyabhāmā bears twin sons. In 8. 5. 397-8 Kṛṣṇa asks Susthita for the return of the site of the city of the former Śārṅgins, which had been covered by the ocean. He obtains it and Kubera builds his city there. In 8. 6. 25 Dvārikā is on the western ocean. In 8. 7. 140 Dvārikā was made on “a site given by the ocean.” In 8. 11. 106 it was covered by the ocean, after it was burned. But in 8. 5. 391, just previous to his interview with Susthita, he made his camp to the north-west of Mt. Raivataka. There Satyabhāmā bore twin sons. In 8. 5. 418 its location is described very exactly: Raivataka was to the east of it, Mālyavat to the south, Mt. Saumanasa to the west, and Gandhamādana to the north—which certainly would not apply to Mūla-dvārakā, but might to Junagaḍh. In 8. 7. 195 Kṛṣṇa left Dvārikā and went to the north-east for 45 yojanas and stopped at Sinapalli, where Ānandapura was later founded (8. 8. 28). Lai (p. 266) identifies Ānandapura with Vaḍnagar in North Gujarat. In 8.11.100 he leaves Dvārakā and goes to the southeast to the Pāṇḍavas’ city, Pāṇḍumathurā. Lai (p. 271) takes Dvārakā to be Junagaḍh.

P. 228 (8. 7. 258). Or perhaps, Bhānuka. Satyabhāmā had twins, Bhānu and Bhāmara (p. 177): a son named Bhānuka (p. 188): and a son Anubhānuka. (p. 214). His other name was Bhīru. Mahābhānu was also a son of Kṛṣṇa.

P. 235 (8. 7. 371). After asking for years many Sanskritists for suggestions for brahmasūtra, at the last minute I was offered an interpretation that made sense. I, and everyone else, had correlated brahmasūtreṇa with asinā, but Mr. T. Venkitram Shastri of the Rāmāyaṇa Dept., O. I., interprets it quite differently: “Anādhṛṣti, light-handed, using trickery, cut Hiraṇya’s body along the sacred thread, like a piece of wood.” I.e., he cut the body diagonally along the line of the sacred thread. He cited a passage in the Rāmāyaṇa, 6.81.30, where the same method is used.

P. 265 (8.9.282). The cakora, a kind of partridge, is supposed to live on moonbeams.

P. 281 (8.10.115). This incident is mentioned in the Cauppaṇṇamahāpurisacariya, p. 197 (Prakrit Text Society Series, No. 3); but no details are given there, either.

P. 343 (9.1.414). With a play on mātaṅga meaning ‘elephant’ and ‘outcaste.’

P. 351 (n. 22). This is not a true example of the Joseph and Potiphar motif, as the Nāginī had not tried to seduce Brahmadatta.

P. 354 (9.1.578). The Yogaśāstra (p. 90a) has krūreṇānena, which seems to me a little better.

P. 373 (9.2.249). Note 332 applies to the “old nun,” not to Nandā, who was Padmā’s friend.

P. 396 (9.3.280). Karaṇa is defined in the . as “the two led moving (together)” in 11.2. and as “combined (movement of) hands and feel” in 4.30-34. An aṅgahāra consists of a number of karaṇas. . 4.30-34.

P. 410 (n. 376 to 9.4.92). The commentary to Rāmāyaṇa, 2.107.6, (Gujarati Printing Press edition) also quotes these lines about the five lies.

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