Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

धनानि जीवितं चैव परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत् ।
सन्निमित्ते वरं त्यागो विनाशे नियते सति ॥ ४४ ॥

dhanāni jīvitaṃ caiva parārthe prājña utsṛjet |
sannimitte varaṃ tyāgo vināśe niyate sati || 44 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 1.44 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (1.44). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Dhana, Jivita, Parartha, Sannimitta, Varam, Vara, Tyaga, Vinasha, Niyata, Niyati, Sat, Sati,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 1.44). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “dhanāni jīvitaṃ caiva parārthe prājña utsṛjet
  • dhanāni -
  • dhana (noun, neuter)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
    dhan (verb class 1)
    [imperative active first single]
  • jīvitam -
  • jīvita (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    jīvita (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    jīvitā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    jīv -> jīvita (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
    jīv -> jīvita (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √jīv class 1 verb], [accusative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
  • cai -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
  • aiva -
  • i (verb class 2)
    [imperfect active first dual]
  • parārthe -
  • parārtha (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    parārtha (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    parārthā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
  • prājña* -
  • Cannot analyse utsṛjet
  • Line 2: “sannimitte varaṃ tyāgo vināśe niyate sati
  • sannimitte -
  • sannimitta (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
  • varam -
  • varam (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    vara (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    vara (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    varā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • tyāgo* -
  • tyāga (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • vināśe -
  • vināśa (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
  • niyate -
  • niyata (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    niyata (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    niyatā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    niyati (noun, feminine)
    [vocative single]
  • sati -
  • satī (noun, feminine)
    [adverb], [vocative single]
    sati (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    sat (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    sat (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 1.44

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.44 in Gujarati sript:
ધનાનિ જીવિતં ચૈવ પરાર્થે પ્રાજ્ઞ ઉત્સૃજેત્ ।
સન્નિમિત્તે વરં ત્યાગો વિનાશે નિયતે સતિ ॥ ૪૪ ॥

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