Vipaka, Vipāka: 30 definitions


Vipaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vipak.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Vipāka (विपाक) refers to an after-taste which emerges after digestion, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

2) Vipāka (विपाक) is a medical term used in Ayurveda meaning "transformatory" or "reactionary effect".

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Vipāka (विपाक) refers to a property of medicinal drugs, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “the Rasa, Vīrya and Vipāka of the drugs should be noted (studied) carefully. [...] Vipāka indicates the richness of the properties after use of such drugs or a better metabolic end product may be equated with Vipāka”.

Source: Cogprints: Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda

Vipāka (विपाक):—After the digestion in gastro intestinal tract is over, the ingredients of food (‘Rasas’) undergo metabolism once again. This metabolic end- product is called ‘Vipāka’(Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya Sūtrasthāna 9/20). This indicates that ‘Vipāka’ is the end product of the action of ‘Bhūtāgnis’. In other words to say, ‘Bhūtāgnipāka’ itself produces ‘Vipāka’ and therefore, ‘Vipāka’ in general, stands for intermediary metabolism.

At the end of ‘Bhūtāgnipāka’, three groups of metabolites are formed: Madhura, Amla and Kaṭu. Guru (‘heavy’) is another name for Madhura whereas Laghu (‘light’) includes remaining two i.e., Amla and Kaṭu. These groups are called ‘Vipākas’.

Effects of ‘Vipāka’ on the formation of ‘Doṣas’ are as follows:

  1. Madhura-vipāka promotes ‘Kapha’,
  2. Amla-vipāka promotes ‘Pitta’
  3. and Kaṭu-vipāka promotes the formation of ‘Vāta’

Also see the Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 26/61,62.

Effects of this stage of metabolism may be of manifold. Some products may be used for tissue synthesis whereas the others may be used for the purpose of energy.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vipāka (विपाक):—Principle that indicates the pharmacological behaviour of a substance post digestion & metabolism; expressed in terms of rasa; 3 in number - Madhura, Amla & Katu; it is asceratined based upon the action of the substance.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Vipāka (विपाक) refers to the “post-digestive-taste of drugs” and represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—The drug/dravya, if is properly used it is equivalent to amṛta (nectar) and if improperly used it is like viṣa (poison). According to Āyurveda, dravya or drug is comprised of rasa (taste), guṇa (properties and qualities), vīrya (potency), vipāka (post-digestive-taste), prabhāva (serendipity—specific effect of a drug) and karma (targeted action of a drug).

Vipāka is post digestive taste. They are three in number. i.e. madhura, amla and kaṭu. After digestion the sweet and salty food and medicine convert to madhura-vipāka; sour food to amla-vipāka; bitter and spicy food to kaṭu-vipāka. From these three vipākas, tridoṣa, will be produced. From sweet kapha-doṣa, from amla (sour) pittadoṣa and from spicy (kaṭu) vātadoṣa is produced.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

Vipaka refers to the consequence and result of a past volitional action (kamma).

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Vipaka (“effect”) [M].—The three vijjas: vision of former rebirths; vision and audition of beings living in other spheres; eradication of the kilesas.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Vipaka (“karma-result”, is any karmically (morally) neutral mental phenomenon (e.g. bodily agreeable or painful feeling, sense-consciousness, etc. ), which is the result of wholesome or unwholesome volitional action (karma, q.v.) through body, speech or mind, done either in this or some previous life. Totally wrong is the belief that, according to Buddhism, everything is the result of previous action. Never, for example, is any karmically wholesome or unwholesome volitional action the result of former action, being in reality itself karma.

On this subject s. titthāyatana, karma, Tab. I; Fund II. Cf. A. III, 101; Kath. 162 (Guide, p. 80). Karma-produced (kammaja or kamma-samutthāna) corporeal things are never called kamma-vipāka, as this term may be applied only to mental phenomena.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Vipāka (विपाक, “ripening cause”) refers to one of the six kinds of causes (hetu) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII).

2) Vipāka (विपाक) refers to “reward”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “[...] Among men, the causes of happiness (sukhahetu) are frequently cultivated; among gods, the fortunate reward (sukhavipāka) is common. The causes of happiness are all the good dharmas (kuśaladharma); happiness (sukha) is the reward (vipāka) of these good dharmas. In destinies other than those of gods and men, the causes of happiness and fortunate reward are rare. This is why the Buddha is the teacher of gods and men”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Vipāka (विपाक) refers to “reward”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, the Lord went on to speak these verses: ‘(31) [The Bodhisattvas] always give a gift with the pure thought for the sake of awakening and they do not expect any reward (vipāka). They, having been pleased and delighted (hṛṣṭatuṣṭa), never feel regret about it, and they always give a gift after having been liberated [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Amaravati: Glossary

the effect or result of kamma (the cause or action).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Vipāka (विपाक) refers to the “fruit of karma” and represents one of the four divisions of Dharmadhyāna (“meditation on the destruction of karma”), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“The destruction of karma is from good meditation, and that meditation is four-fold: on ājñā, apāya, vipāka, and saṃsthāna. [...] The fruit of karma is called ‘vipāka’, and it is good and bad. It is experienced in many aspects through the totality of substance, space, etc. Among these good (fruit) is experienced from enjoyment of substance, such as women, wreaths, food, etc.; bad is experienced from snakes, weapons, fire, poison, etc. [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Vipāka (विपाक, “ripening”).—According to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8, “fruition is the ripening or maturing of karmas”.—What is meant by ripening /fruition (vipāka)? The maturing or rising of the karmas to yield distinctive and variegated fruits is ripening. What is the nature of results / experience from rise/ripening (vipāka) of the karmas? The nature of experience is similar to the name of the karma species e.g. knowledge obscuring karma will only cover the manifestation of knowledge.

What happens to karmas after fruition (vipāka)? They get dissociated from the soul after fruition (producing pleasant or miseryful experience). What is meant by dissociation (nirjarā)? Like the food consumed after digestion get excreted, similarly the karmas after fruition get excreted or dissociated from the soul. This is dissociation.

Source: HereNow4u: Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2)

Vipāka (विपाक) refers to “result” according to the Vipāka-sūtra, one of the Dvādaśāṅgī (twelve Aṅgas) of Jainism.—Vipākasūtra is the 11th Aṅga.  It has 2 Śrutaskaṇdha, 20 chapters, 20 topics, 20 sub topics and numerous verses, limited discourses and numerous verses. The present available text has 1216 verses. The main aim of this text is to enlighten about the retribution for good or evil actions. It has two sections - Painful result (duḥkha-vipāka) and Pleasuable result (sukha-vipāka). Kārmika law is a prominent and significant doctrine of Jain Dharma. This text is very useful to cite the examples about kārmika law.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Vipāka (विपाक) refers to the “results of karma”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Virtuous meditation is of four kinds, examination of the instruction [of the Jina], [examination of] suffering, [examination of] the results of karma (vipāka) and [examination of] the form [of the universe] individually in that order”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vipāka : (m.) result; fruition; consequence of one's actions.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vipāka, (fr. vi+pac) fruit, fruition, product; always in pregnant meaning of “result, effect, consequence (of one’s action), ” either as good & meritorious (kusala) or bad & detrimental (akusala). Hence “retribution” (kamma°), reward or punishment. See on term e.g. Dhs. translation introd. 2 XCIII; Cpd. 43. 249.—D. III, 150, 160, 176 sq.; S. I, 34, 57, 92 (kammassa); II, 128 (compar. vipākatara), 255 (id.); IV, 186 sq. 348 sq.; A. I, 48, 97 (sukha°, dukkha°), 134 (kamma°), 263; II, 34 (agga), 80, 112; III, 35, 172 (dānassa), 410 sq. (kāmānaṃ etc.), 436; IV, 303 (kamma°); V, 251; Sn. 653 (kamma°); Ps. II, 79 (dukkha°); Pv. I, 91; I, 107 & passim; Pug. 13, 21; Dhs. 431, 497, 987; Vbh. 16 sq. 73, 319, 326 sq. 334 (sukha°); Kvu 353 sq. 464 (kamma & vipāka); Nett 99, 161, 180 sq.; Tikp 27 (fourfold), 44, 48, 50, 292 (a° & sa°), 328 sq. (°tika), 350 sq.; Dukp 17; Vism. 177, 454 (fourfold), 456 (°viññāṇa), 538 (°paccaya), 545 sq.; VbhA. 17, 150 sq. (kusala° & akusala), 144, 177, 391; PvA. 50, 73, 77; Sdhp. 12, 73, 197, 235. (Page 627)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vipāka (विपाक).—m S (Cooking or ripening.) Maturing, completing, perfecting. Ex. of compounds--anna-karma-jvara-daiva-dharma-adharma-dhānya-pāpa-puṇya-phala -buddhi-rōga-vipāka. Of these a few occur in order. 2 Cooked, matured, or perfected state: also the thing accomplished; the product or result.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vipāka (विपाक).—m Maturing, perfecting. The result. Fruition.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vipāka (विपाक).—

1) Cooking, dressing.

2) Digestion; रूपं चक्षुर्विपाकश्च त्रिधा ज्योतिर्विधीयते (rūpaṃ cakṣurvipākaśca tridhā jyotirvidhīyate) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.248.1; also bad digestion.

3) Ripening, ripeness, maturity, development (fig. also); अमी पृथुस्तम्बमृतः पिशङ्गतां गता विपाकेन फलस्य शालयः (amī pṛthustambamṛtaḥ piśaṅgatāṃ gatā vipākena phalasya śālayaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 4.26; वाचां विपाको मम (vācāṃ vipāko mama) Bv.4.42 'my mature, full-developed, or dignified words'.

4) Consequence, fruit, result, the result of actions either in this or in a former birth; अहो मे दारुणतरः कर्मणां विपाकः (aho me dāruṇataraḥ karmaṇāṃ vipākaḥ) K.354; ममैव जन्मान्तरपातकानां विपाकविस्फूर्जथुरप्रसह्यः (mamaiva janmāntarapātakānāṃ vipākavisphūrjathuraprasahyaḥ) R.14. 62; Bhartṛhari 2.99; Mv.5.56.

5) (a) Change of state; कष्टं बतान्यदिव दैववशेन जाता दुःखात्मकं किमपि भूतमहो विपाकः (kaṣṭaṃ batānyadiva daivavaśena jātā duḥkhātmakaṃ kimapi bhūtamaho vipākaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 4.6. (b) An unexpected event or occurrence, a reverse, adverse turn of fate, distress, calamity; ईदृशानां विपाकोऽपि जायते परमाद्भुतः (īdṛśānāṃ vipāko'pi jāyate paramādbhutaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 3.3; विपाके घोरेऽस्मिन्नथ खलु विमूढा तव सखी (vipāke ghore'sminnatha khalu vimūḍhā tava sakhī) 4.12.

6) Difficulty, embarrassment.

7) Flavour, taste.

8) Withering, fading.

Derivable forms: vipākaḥ (विपाकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vipāka (विपाक).—m. (Sanskrit and Pali id.), maturation, coming to fruition (of action): °ka-stha, of Buddhas, = vaipākika, q.v.; °ka-maheśākhya, see this; °ka-phalam Mahāvyutpatti 2276, one of the 5 phala, q.v. (2), expl. by iṣṭahetutvena in Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xvii.31 commentary, in Bodhisattvabhūmi 102.19—20 by akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām apāyeṣu vipāko vipacyate, kuśala-sāsravāṇāṃ sugatau; -karma-samādāna-hetuso-vipākaso-(for °śo; according to causes and results)-jñāna- Lalitavistara 433.6; dattvā ca vipākāpratikāṅkṣī Lalitavistara 181.2, not looking for ‘maturation’ i.e. recompense, reward (for the gift.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vipāka (विपाक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Cooking, dressing. 2. Ripening, maturing. 3. Fla- vour, taste. 4. Unexpected or improbable result. 5. Poverty, distress. 6. Change of form or state. 7. The consequences of actions, either in this or in a former birth; the operation or time in maturing their results. 8. Assimilation of food, its conversion into a state differing from its original one, digestion. E. vi before, pac to ripen, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vipāka (विपाक).—i. e. vi-pac + a, m. 1. Cooking. 2. Ripening, [Kirātārjunīya] 4, 26; taking place, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 52, 5. 3. The consequence of actions, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 97. 4. Unexpected or improbable result. 5. Distress, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 96, 14. 6. Change of form or state. 7. Flavour, taste, Mahābhārata 1, 716. 8. Digestion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vipāka (विपाक).—[adjective] ripe. [masculine] ripening, maturity, consequence of actions; issue, result i.[grammar]; digestion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vipāka (विपाक):—[=vi-pāka] [from vi-pac] a mf(ā)n. ripe, mature, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] m. cooking, dressing (= pacana), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] ripening, maturing ([especially] of the fruit of actions), effect, result, consequence (of actions in the present or former births pursuing those who commit them through subsequent existences), [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] maturing of food (in the stomach), digestion conversion of food into a state for assimilation, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Suśruta]

5) [v.s. ...] bad digestion, [Caraka]

6) [v.s. ...] any change of form or state, [Uttararāma-carita]

7) [v.s. ...] calamity, distress, misfortune, [Yājñavalkya; Uttararāma-carita]

8) [v.s. ...] withering, fading, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

9) [v.s. ...] ‘sweat’ or ‘flavour’ (sveda or svāda), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] ([in the beginning of a compound]) subsequently, afterwards (See [compound])

11) [=vi-pāka] b vi-pākin See under vi-√pac, p.973.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vipāka (विपाक):—[vi-pāka] (kaḥ) 1. m. Cooking; ripening; digestion; flavour; change of form or taste; startling result; punishment.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vipāka (विपाक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vivāga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vipaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vipāka (विपाक) [Also spelled vipak]:—(nm) result, consequence (of actions etc.); ripening; maturing.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vipāka (ವಿಪಾಕ):—

1) [noun] the act of cooking, boiling well.

2) [noun] the act of (a fruit) becoming ripe.

3) [noun] the state of being fully grown or developed; the state or condition of a thing that is most suitable or ideal for it to be used optimally.

4) [noun] the act or process of (food) being digested.

5) [noun] harm; damage; peril.

6) [noun] anything that comes about as a consequence or outcome of some action, process, etc.; result.

7) [noun] something that unavoidably befalls a person; fortune; fate.

8) [noun] (jain.) the fruit or fruits of one’s actions, dedds either of the present life or or the previous ones.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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