Ru, Rū, Ṟu, Ṟū: 16 definitions

Introduction:

Ru means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Ru (रु).—Substitute र् (r) for the consonant स् (s) at the end of a word as also for the ष् () of सजुत्र्, न् (sajutr, n) of अहन् (ahan) and optionally with र् (r) for the final स् (s) of अम्नस्, ऊधस् (amnas, ūdhas) and अवस् (avas) in Veda; e.g. अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः (agniratra, vāyuratra, sajūrdevobhiḥ) cf. P.VIII.2.66; the र् (r) of this रु (ru) (as contrasted with the substitute र् (r) which see above) is further changed into उ (u) before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ (a) provided it is preceded by the vowel अ (a), while र् (r), prescribed as substitute र (ra) (which see above), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्यः (śivorcyaḥ, śivo vandyaḥ) as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गणः (aharatra, ahargaṇaḥ);

2) Ru.—Substitute र् (r) for the final ज् (j) of अवयज् (avayaj) (e. g, अवयाः (avayāḥ)), for ह् (h) of श्वेतवह् (śvetavah) (e.g. श्वेतवाः (śvetavāḥ)), and for श् (ś) of पुरोडाश् (puroḍāś) (e.g. पुगेडाः (pugeḍāḥ)) before the case affix सु (su) ; cf.P.VIII.4.67;

3) Ru.—Substitute र् (r) (or द् (d)) for the final स् (s) or द् (d) of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् (sip) of the 2nd pers. sing; cf. P. VIII.2.74,75;

4) Ru.—Substitute र् (r) for the final न् (n) of words ending with the affix मत् (mat) or वस् (vas) in Veda; e.g. मरुत्वः हरिवः (marutvaḥ harivaḥ) ; cf. Kas. on P.VIII.3.1;

5) Ru.—Substitute र् (r) for the final न् (n) at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् (chav) letter i.e. the first or a second consonant excepting ख् (kh) and फ् (ph); e.g. भवांश्चिनोति (bhavāṃścinoti); cf. P.VIII. 3.7;

6) Ru.—Substitute र् (r) for the final न् (n) of नॄन् (nṝn) before the letter प् (p) as also for the final न् (n) of स्वतवान् (svatavān) and कान् (kān) under certain conditions; cf. P. VIII.3. 10.12.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Rukāra (रुकार) or Rukāra refers to the “letter ru” (symbolizing the state of being free from conceptual arrangement, etc.], according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...] (The meaning of the letter ru, i.e., being free from conceptual arrangement, etc.—) [Taught in connection with] the conceptual arrangement, the selflessness of person, the great, is [accompanied by] a web of conceptualization. The letter ru [e.g., rukāra] [represents the principle that] myself is conditioned: That [letter ru refers to the state of] being free from the conceptual arrangement of ‘mine’. [...]”.

Note: Verses 9c–10b explain the meaning of the letter ru (of Śrīheruka), based on the traditional idea or a doctrine that the letter ru refers to the state of being free from conceptual arrangement (apagatavyūha) or equivalent. The Hevajra was the first to teach this (rukārāpagatavyūham. , Skt ed. (Snellgrove 1959), I.7.27c). [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Rū.—(IE 8-1), abbreviation of rūpaka or rūpyaka. (CITD), abbreviation of Telugu rūka meaning ‘cash’ and probably derived from Sanskrit rūpaka. Note: is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Ru in Malaysia is the name of a plant defined with Casuarina equisetifolia in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. & G. Forster (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Herb. Amboin. (1743)
· Allg. Naturgesch. (1841)
· Flora de Filipinas (1837)
· Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (1982)
· Regnum Vegetabile, or ‘a Series of Handbooks for the Use of Plant Taxonomists and Plant Geographers’ (1993)
· Smithsonian Contributions to Botany (1975)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Ru, for example diet and recipes, health benefits, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, side effects, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rū (रू).—m ( H) Carded cotton. 2 n ( P Face.) The front side of a playing card.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rū (रू).—m Carded cotton.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ru (रु).—I. 2 P. (rauti, ravīti, ruta)

1) To cry, howl, scream, yell, shout, roar; to hum (as bees); to sound in general; कर्णे कलं किमपि रौति शनैर्विचित्रम् (karṇe kalaṃ kimapi rauti śanairvicitram) H.1.81; Bhaṭṭikāvya 3.17; 12.72;14.21. -Caus. To make sound; यस्माल्लोकत्रयं चैतद् रावितं भयमागतम् (yasmāllokatrayaṃ caitad rāvitaṃ bhayamāgatam) Rām.7.16.37. -II. 1 Ā. (ravate)

1) To go, move.

2) To hurt, kill.

3) Ved. To break to pieces.

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Ru (रु).—

1) Sound, noise.

2) Fear, alarm.

3) War, battle.

4) Cutting, dividing.

Derivable forms: ruḥ (रुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ru (रु).—[(ṭu,)ṭuru] r. 2nd cl. (rauti) 1. To sound. 2. To make a particular sort of sound. (ṅ) ruṅ r. 1st. cl. (ravate) 1. To go, to move. 2. To hurt, to injure or kill. 3. To speak. 4. To be angry.

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Ru (रु).—m.

(-ruḥ) 1. War, battle. 2. Noise, sound. f.

(-ruḥ) 1. Fear, alarm. 2. Cutting, dividing. E. ru to sound, aff. kvip .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ru (रु).—ii. 2, [Parasmaipada.] 1. To sound, to make a particular sound, as birds, Mahābhārata 1, 5898; bees, etc., to hum, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 80, M.M. 2. To bray, Mahābhārata 1, 4508. 3. To yelp, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 113. 4. To yell, Mahābhārata 4, 1463. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. ruta, n. 1. Any cry or noise, humming of bees, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 2, 10. 2. The cry of birds, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 52, 11. 3. Song, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 131. Frequent. roru and rorūya, To cry loudly, to yelp loudly, Mahābhārata 1, 6112; 663. [Causal.] rāvaya, To fill with a roar, Mahābhārata 3, 15928.

— With the prep. abhi abhi, abhiruta, 1. Sounded, filled with the sound of, Mahābhārata 3, 1535. 2. Sounding. 3. Humming, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 34. n. Sound, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 9, 17.

— With ā ā, To cry, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 17, 24.

— With vi vi, 1. To sound, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 144, 2. 2. To yell, [Pañcatantra] 64, 4. 3. To lament, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 102; Mahābhārata 3, 336. viruta, n. Tone. Cāk. [distich] 85; singing, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 33. [Causal.] To make a braying noise, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 64.

— With sam sam, To cry, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 17, 71.

— Cf. ([frequentative.]); [Latin] raucus, rūmor; [Anglo-Saxon.] ryn.

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Ru (रु).—i. 1, [Ātmanepada.] 1. To go. 2. To hurt, or to be angry (?). 3. To speak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ru (रु).—1. rauti ruvati ravati ravate [participle] ruta (q.v.) roar, howl, shriek, croak, sound, thunder. [Causative] rāvayati cause to roar or cry, fill with cries. [Intensive] roravīti, rorūyate, ti roar or cry out loudly.

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Ru (रु).—2. only rāviṣam & ruta (q.v.) crush.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ru (रु):—1. ru [class] 2. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxiv, 24]; cf. [Pāṇini 7-3, 15]) rauti or ravīti ([Vedic or Veda] also ruvati and ravoti, te; p. ruvat, ravat, ravamāṇa, ravāṇa; [perfect tense] rurāva, [Mahābhārata]; ruruvire, [Brāhmaṇa]; [Aorist] arāvīt, [Ṛg-veda]; Prec. rūyāt [grammar]; [future] ravitā or rotā, [ib.]; raviṣyati, [ib.]; [infinitive mood] ravitum, [ib.], rotum, [Kāvya literature]),

—to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to make any noise or sound, sing (as birds), hum (as bees), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

— (rauti) to praise, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 14] :—[Causal] rāvayati ([Aorist] arūruvat with the sense of the [Intensive] [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]; or arīravat, [Pāṇini 7-4, 80 [Scholiast or Commentator]]),

—to cause to bellow or roar, cause an uproar, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc. :—[Desiderative] of [Causal] rirāvayiṣati [grammar] :—[Desiderative] rurūṣati, [ib.] :—[Intensive] ([Vedic or Veda]) roravīti (p. roruvat and roruvāṇa) or ([Epic]) rorūyate, ti or ([grammar]) roroti. to bellow or roar etc. loudly, scream aloud, vociferate.

2) cf. [Greek] ὠρύομαι; [Latin] raucus; [Anglo-Saxon] rŷn.

3) 2. ru m. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) sound, noise

4) fear, alarm

5) war, battle.

6) 3. ru [class] 1. [Ātmanepada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxii, 63]) ravate (only rāviṣam, [Ṛg-veda x, 86, 5]; ruruviṣe, araviṣṭa aroṣṭa, [Vopadeva])

—to break or dash to pieces, [Ṛg-veda] ([Dhātupāṭha] also ‘to go; to kill; to be angry; to speak’) :—[Intensive] (only p. roruvat) to break, shatter, [Ṛg-veda i, 54, 1; 5.]

7) 4. ru m. cutting, dividing, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ru (रु):—(la) rauti 2. a. To sound. (ṅa) ravata 1. d. To go; hurt; speak.

2) (ruḥ) 1. m. War; noise. f. Alarm.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ru in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rū (रू):—(nm) face, countenance, frontage; ~[pośa] veiled; an absconder; ~[pośī] veiling one’s face; absconding; -[ba-rū] face to face; in the presence of; -[riyāyata] consideration; concession; leniency.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rū (ರೂ):—

1) [noun] a learning by heart (as to keep the things so learnt accurately in memory).

2) [noun] ರೂಹಾಕು [ruhaku] rū hāku to learn ( a poem, passage, set of facts etc.) by heart so that it can be recollected or reproduced accurately from memory; to commit to one’s memory.

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Rū (ರೂ):—[noun] an abbreviated form of ರುಪಾಯಿ [rupayi] (rupee, the Indian monetary unit); Re.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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