Riju, Ṛju: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Riju means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Ṛju can be transliterated into English as Rju or Riju, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Hriju.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Ṛju (ऋजु) refers to “straight” (e.g., a ‘straight line’—the awakened Kuṇḍalinī), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Bhagavat (Viṣṇu) said to Śaṃkara: “O Śrīkaṇṭha! Great Rudra! You have come into being due to (this) drop of nectar. I am Kumārikā, Viṣṇu’s supreme energy, (the awakened Kuṇḍalinī whose form is like) a straight line [i.e., ṛju-rekhā]. O foolish one, you previously committed suicide due to (your) mistaken knowledge. You did not see (that) great body (mahāpiṇḍa) in the form of a Liṅga. I, Hari's energy, Mahālakṣmī, abide in your body. O Rudra, tell me the truth. Why have you taken refuge in me?”.

2) Ṛju (ऋजु) refers to a “straight line”, representing one of the “sixteen stations of the ascent of kuṇḍalinī”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—Accordingly, “[...] (10) Above that is the subtle element of Sound (nādatanmātra). It is (in the form of a) straight (line) [i.e., ṛju]. (Subtle) as a sky-flower, think of it as moving and straight. [...] (Perfect) contemplation (samādhi) is with (these) sixteen aspects and is (attained) within the form of the sixfold deposition (ṣoḍhānyāsa). He who knows this is (a veritable) Lord of Yogis, the others (who do not) are (just) quoting from books. Once attained the plane that is Void and Non-void, the yogi is freed from bondage”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Ṛju (ऋजु) refers to the “straight” appearance of Ketus, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Generally, if the luminous body or comet be small, clear, glossy, straight [i.e., ṛju], transient, white and visible either immediately after their appearance or some time afterwards, there will be health and happiness in the land. If it be the opposite of these, or of the shape of the rainbow or with two or three tails, mankind will not be happy”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Ṛju (ऋजु) refers to a “straight” (construction), according to the Devyāmata (chapter 105).—Accordingly, [trees for the surrounding gardens]—“[...] As before, the surrounding wall should be made straight (ṛju), well erected and level. My dear, having established the subsidiary shrines beyond the wall, everything should be made thus, complete, and in due sequence. Beyond the residence, it is surrounded by a garden and has a surrounding wall. Everything to be done has been altogether declared. Thus ends the chapter on the residence”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ṛju (ऋजु) refers to “(having a) straight (body)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 19).—Accordingly, “Furthermore, some say that generosity is the cause and condition (hetupratyaya) for obtaining the thirty-two marks. Why is that? [...] Because the gift serves to maintain life, one obtains the marks consisting of having long fingers (dīrghāṇguli) and the body tall and straight (bṛhat-ṛju-kāya). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Ṛju (ऋजु) refers to one of the two types of manaḥparaya-jñāna (“power to read other persons’ thoughts”), which itself represents one of the five types of “right-knowledge” (samyagjñāna), as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as mentioned in Ṛṣabha’s sermon:

“[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Among these, exact knowledge which comes from a summary or detailed study of the principles, jīva, etc., is called ‘right-knowledge’ (samyagjñāna). [...] Manaḥparyaya is twofold: Ṛju and Vipula. The distinction between them may be understood to lie in purity and not being lost”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṛju (ऋजु).—a (S) Straight or direct. 2 fig. Honest, upright, fair: also guileless, artless, simple.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ṛju (ऋजु).—n Straight, direct. Fig. Honest, upright, fair, guil less, artless.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ṛju (ऋजु).—a. [arjayati guṇān, arj-u Tv.] (ju or jvī f.) (compar. ṛjīyas, superl. ṛjiṣṭha)

1) Straight (fig. also); उमां स पश्यन् ऋजुनैव चक्षुषा (umāṃ sa paśyan ṛjunaiva cakṣuṣā) Kumārasambhava 5.32; Śiśupālavadha 1.13, 12.18,2.77; °प्रणाम (praṇāma) R.6.25.

2) Upright, honest, straight-forward; ऋजूननृजवः (ṛjūnanṛjavaḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.415.

3) Simpleminded, plain; Mṛcchakaṭika 5; Ratnāvalī 2,3.

4) Favourable, beneficial, good. -ind. In the right manner, Correctly; Ṛgveda 2.3.7.

See also (synonyms): ṛjuka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛju (ऋजु).—mfn. (-juḥ-juḥ-ju) 1. Straight. 2. Straight metaphorically, as in morals, upright, honest. E. ṛj to go, affix ku.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛju (ऋजु).—[ṛj-u], adj. 1. Straight, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 47. 2. Right, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 34, 31.

— Comparat. ṛjīyaṃs, and ved. also rajīyaṃs; superl. ṛjiṣṭha, and ved. also rajiṣṭha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛju (ऋजु).—([feminine] ṛjvī) straight, right, upright, nonest; [neuter] [adverb]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ṛju (ऋजु):—mf(jvī)n. (√arj, [Uṇādi-sūtra i, 28]; probably [from] √2. ṛñj, [column]3 [Boehtlingk & Roth’s Sanskrit-Woerterbuch]), tending in a straight direction, straight ([literally] and [figuratively]; opp. to vṛjina), upright, honest, right, sincere, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda xiv, 1, 34; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc., [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) ind. in the right manner, correctly, [Ṛg-veda ii, 3, 7; v, 46, 1; x, 67, 2; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa iii, 3, 10]

3) in a straight line, straight on [Suśruta] etc.

4) [Comparative degree] ṛjīyas, [Ṛg-veda vii, 104, 12; Atharva-veda v, 14, 12; viii, 4, 12, and] rajīyas, [Pāṇini 6-4, 162]

5) [superlative degree] ṛjiṣṭha, [Pāṇini, and] rajiṣṭha, [Ṛg-veda]

6) ([observe that the metaphorical meaning of this word is more common in Vedic, and the literal meaning in classical literature])

7) m. (us) Name of a son of Vasu-deva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

8) cf. [Zend] ĕrĕzu; [Greek] ὀρέγω; [Latin] rectus; [Gothic] raihts; [English] right.

9) Ṛjū (ऋजू):—[from ṛju] (in [compound] for ṛju above).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛju (ऋजु):—[(juḥ-juḥ-ju) a.] Straight.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ṛju (ऋजु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Aṃju, Ujju.

[Sanskrit to German]

Riju in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ṛju (ऋजु) [Also spelled hriju]:—(a) straight; simple; not crooked; ~[] straightness; simplicity, sincerity.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ṛju (ಋಜು):—

1) [adjective] 1) not crooked, bent, bowed, wavy or curly; b) erect; upright.

2) [adjective] following strictly the principles; not swerving from moral, ethical values; following a direct system or course of reasoning; honest; sincere.

3) [adjective] simple; undiluted; pure.

--- OR ---

Ṛju (ಋಜು):—

1) [noun] a simple, honest, sincere man.

2) [noun] a straight view free from prejudice or bias; a fair, impartial looking at or reviewing; a just, objective analysis.

--- OR ---

Riju (ರಿಜು):—

1) [adjective] not straight; bent or crooked.

2) [adjective] being honest, upright and in accordance with moral principles.

--- OR ---

Riju (ರಿಜು):—

1) [noun] conduct according to moral principles; strict honesty; uprightness of character; rectitude.

2) [noun] a man of rectitude.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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