Prishtha, Pṛṣṭha: 23 definitions


Prishtha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Pṛṣṭha can be transliterated into English as Prstha or Prishtha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Prashth.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ, “back”) refers to one of the nine “minor limbs” (pratyaṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Pratyaṅgas or the minor limbs consist of shoulders, shoulder blades, arms, back [viz., Pṛṣṭha], thighs and calves; at times the wrists, knees and elbows are also counted among minor limbs.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ):—[pṛṣṭham] (1) Back. Dorsam. (2) Posterior part of the trunk. The posterior region of the trunk from neck to pelvis

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Prishtha in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) refers to the “top” (of a mountain), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.11.—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Himavat (Himālaya): “I have come to perform penance in secret on your top [i.e., pṛṣṭha]. Make arrangements so that none should be able to come near me. You are a noble soul, the abode of penance and permanent residence of sages, gods, demons and other great men. You are the permanent residence of brahmins and others; you are always sanctified by Gaṅgā; you render help to others and you are the lord and king of all mountains. [...]”.

2) Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) refers to “one’s back”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.30 (“The Celebration of Pārvatī’s Return”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] In the meantime, Śiva, favourably disposed to His disciples and prone to divine sports, assumed the guise of a dancer and approached Menakā. He held the blowing horn in his left and the drum in his right hand. He wore a red cloth and had the wallet suspended behind his back (pṛṣṭha). In the guise of a dancer with the skill of dancing and singing, he danced well and sang many songs in sweet voice. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) refers to the “back”, according to verse 4.497ff of the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, “[...] Next is installed a second series of seven lotuses, the garland of Yoginīs. In contrast to the first lotus garland, these do not lie in a vertical axis. Three form a kind of girdle: one lotus is placed in the center of the waist, on the back (kaṭi-pṛṣṭha), while the other two lie on either side of the waist. The remaining four lotuses are situated on the sides of the knees and feet. Installed upon these lotuses are goddesses known as the Six Yoginīs, led by a male deity, Ādivīra (“Primordial Hero”), positioned in the lotus on the back of the waist. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) (Cf. Pṛṣṭhaja) refers to “one’s back”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If [someone] touches his back (pṛṣṭha-saṃsparśapṛṣṭhajaṃ pṛṣṭhasaṃsparśād), there is [an extraneous thing] arising from the back (pṛṣṭhaja) [, i.e. a back-bone at the depth up to the back]. If [someone touches] his belly, [there is an extraneous thing related to the belly] at the depth up to the [belly]. If [someone] touches his side, one should prognosticate that there is an extraneous thing arising from dust. The best knower of extraneous things [= the officiant] should remove that extraneous thing which exists [at a depth of] that measurement [= up to the side] [underground]. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Prishtha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) refers to the “back (of one’s body)”, according to the Mataṅgapārameśvaratantra (Mataṅgapārameśvara’s Yogapāda) verse 2.23-27.—Accordingly, while discussing ancillary and seated poses in Yoga: “[...] Having raised and broadened the chest and having made the arms loose, the wise [Yogin] should extend his back (pṛṣṭha) and raise the region of the shoulders. He should diligently hold the neck still, very steady and straight [but] not too rigid nor bent [to one side]. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ, “spine”) refers to the “back part”, from which the Buddha emitted numerous rays (raśmi) when he smiled with his whole body after contemplating the entire universe, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Accordingly, having himself arranged the lion-seat, the Bhagavat sat down cross-legged; holding his body upright and fixing his attention, he entered into the samādhirājasamādhi. Then, having tranquilly come out of this samādhi and having contemplated the entire universe with his divine eye (divyacakṣus), the Bhagavat smiled with his whole body. Wheels with a thousand spokes imprinted on the soles of his feet (pādatala) shoot out six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays. In the same way, beams of six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays are emitted from his spine (pṛṣṭha).

After emission, the rays (raśmi) might return to the pṛṣṭha (“back part”), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). According to the Avadānaśataka and Divyāvadāna, it is a custom that, at the moment when the Buddha Bhagavats show their smile, blue, yellow, red and white rays flash out of the Bhagavat’s mouth, some of which go up and some of which go down. Those that go down penetrate into the hells (naraka); those that go up penetrate to the gods from the Cāturmahārājikas up to the Akaniṣṭas. Having travelled through the trisāhasramahāsāhasralokadhātu, the rays return to the Bhagavat from behind. According as to whether the Buddha wishes to show such-and-such a thing, the rays return to him by a different part of the body.

If the rays disappear in the back (pṛṣṭha) of the Buddha, it is because he wants to reveal past actions (atītaṃ karma).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pṛṣṭha.—cf. pṛṣṭhe hastaḥ (LP), ‘hand on someone's back’; a sign of warning. Note: pṛṣṭha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ).—n (S) The back. 2 The rear; the last; the back or hinder part. 3 A page of a book.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ).—n The back. The rear. A page of a book.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ).—[pṛṣ spṛś-vā thak ni°; Uṇādi-sūtra 2.12]

1) The back, hinder part, rear; धर्मः स्तनोऽधर्मपथोऽस्य पृष्ठः (dharmaḥ stano'dharmapatho'sya pṛṣṭhaḥ) Bhāgavata 2.1. 32.

2) The back of an animal; अश्वपृष्ठमारूढः (aśvapṛṣṭhamārūḍhaḥ) &c.

3) The surface or upper side; मरुपृष्ठान्युदम्भांसि (marupṛṣṭhānyudambhāṃsi) (cakāra) R.4.31;12.67; आसन्नभूपृष्ठमियाय देवः (āsannabhūpṛṣṭhamiyāya devaḥ) Kumārasambhava 7.51; so अवनिपृष्ठचारिणीम् (avanipṛṣṭhacāriṇīm) Uttararāmacarita 3.

4) The back or the other side (of a letter, document &c.); लेख्यस्य पृष्ठेऽभिलिखेद्दत्त्वा दत्त्वर्णिको धनम् (lekhyasya pṛṣṭhe'bhilikheddattvā dattvarṇiko dhanam) Y.2.93.

5) The flat roof of a house.

6) The page of a book. (pṛṣṭhena, pṛṣṭhe 'behind, from behind').

7) Remainder (śeṣa); 'पृष्ठं चरममात्रे स्यात् (pṛṣṭhaṃ caramamātre syāt)' इति विश्वः (iti viśvaḥ); एष भारतयुद्धस्य पृष्ठं संशयमिष्यति (eṣa bhāratayuddhasya pṛṣṭhaṃ saṃśayamiṣyati) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.167.11.

Derivable forms: pṛṣṭham (पृष्ठम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) or Pṛṣṭhi.—(pṛṣṭhi-, pṛṣṭha-, pṛṣṭhī-) ; mss. sometimes pṛṣṭi-) -kaṇṭaka, often spelled °kaṇṭhaka (see this) in mss. of Mahāvastu, m. or nt. (= Pali piṭṭhi-kaṇṭaka; also piṭṭhī-?), backbone: Lalitavistara 254.13 evaṃ me pṛṣṭhīkaṇṭako 'bhūd; 20 pṛṣṭhikaṇṭakam evāsprākṣam; 256.1 pṛṣṭhīkaṇṭakaḥ; Mahāvastu ii.125.16 pṛṣṭhakaṇṭakāni; 127.5 pṛṣṭhikaṇṭakāsthikāni; 128.10 pṛṣṭhikaṇṭakāni; 129.12 evam eva me pṛṣṭha- kaṇṭakaṃ (mss., Senart em. °kā) abhūnsuḥ (all passages are prose); pṛṣṭhikaṇṭakam Mahāvastu ii.127.10; 128.15; 129.17, see prec. and next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ).—n.

(-ṣṭhaṃ) 1. The back. 2. The rear, the last, the back or hinder part of any thing. 3. The surface or superficies. 4. The back or the other side, (as of a document.) 5. The flat roof of a house. E. pṛṣ to sprinkle, Unadi aff. thak .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ).—perhaps pra-stha, n. 1. The back, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 72; with , To incline deeply, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 4, 135. 2. The rear, the hinder-part of anything. ṣṭhe and ṣṭhena, from behind, Mārk. P. 23, 5; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 47, 12. 3. The surface or superficies, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 147; terrace, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 38, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ).—[neuter] back ([especially] of an animal); hinder part, rear; upper side, surface, top (of a hill or palace); [locative] behind the back, behind or from behind.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ):—n. ([probably] [from] pra-stha, ‘standing forth prominently’; ifc. f(ā). ) the back (as the prominent part of an animal), the hinder part or rear of anything, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (pṛṣṭhena-√yā, with [genitive case], to ride on; ṭhena-√vah, to carry on the back; ṭhaṃ-√dā, to give the back, make a low obeisance; ṭhe ind. behind or from behind)

2) the upper side, surface, top, height, [ib.] (with divaḥ, or nākasya, the surface of the sky, vault of heaven; cf. ghṛta-p)

3) the flat roof of a house (cf. gṛha-p, harmya-p)

4) a page of a book, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

5) Name of [particular] arrangement of Sāmans (employed at the midday libation and formed from the Rathaṃtara, Bṛhat, Vairūpa, Vairāja, Śākvara, and Raivata Ś°), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; ???]

6) Name of various Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ):—(ṣṭhaṃ) 1. n. The back, the rear; the surface or superficies.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paṭṭha, Piṭṭha, Piṭṭhī.

[Sanskrit to German]

Prishtha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prishtha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ) [Also spelled prashth]:—(nm) a page; the back; rear, hind part of anything; (a) dorsal; ~[ta]: from behind, quietly; dorsally; ~[poṣaka] one who backs, helper, supporter; -[phala] the area of the upper surface of a solid; —[bhāga] the back or rear portion/part.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pṛṣṭha (ಪೃಷ್ಠ):—

1) [noun] the back side of anything.

2) [noun] the part to the rear or top reaching from the nape of the neck to the end of the spine (in humans); the back.

3) [noun] either of the two fleshy, rounded parts at the back of the hips; the buttock.

4) [noun] any of several sheets of paper bounded in the form of a book or a loose sheet of paper.

5) [noun] ಪೃಷ್ಠ ಮಾಂಸಾದನ [prishtha mamsadana] přṣṭha māṃsādana a speaking maliciously about a person in his or her absence.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prishtha in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Pṛṣṭha (पृष्ठ):—adj. asked; inquired; interrogated; questioned; n. 1. Anat. back; 2. rear part; the lower part; 3. page; 4. the surface/upper side; adj. following; supporting;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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