Mandra; 4 Definition(s)


Mandra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Mandra (मन्द्र, “grave”) refers to one of six “ornaments”, or ‘figures of speech’ (alaṃkāra). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 19, these six ornaments are part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa). The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. These ornaments dictate the type of recitation, eg. mandra and vilambita should be used in words expressing sharpness and roughness.

Uses of mandra: “the grave note proceed from the chest register and is to be used in despondency, weakness, anxiety, impatience, low-spiritedness, sickness, deep wound from weapons, fainting, intoxication, communicating secret words and the like”.

2) Mandra (मन्द्र, “low”) refers to “low pitches” and is one of the ten characteristics (gati) of the jāti (melodic class), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. It is also known as mandragati or mandrasvara. Jāti refers to a recognized melody-type and can be seen as a precursor to rāgas which replaced them.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 28.93-94, “three kinds of the low pitch movement (mandra-gati): that depending on the aṃśa, on the nyāsa, and on the apanyāsa. There is no pitch lower than that of the aṃśa notes (svara); in the nyāsa such a pitch will be separated by two notes, and when the gāndhāra is the graha and the nyāsa, ṛṣabha and dhaivata are seen to bear a low pitch”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Mandra (मन्द्र, “low”).—Illustration of mandra-grāma (lowest group of tones) according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of mandra-grāma is white. He holds a vīṇā (Indian lute) with both hands. The colour of the scarf is rosy and the colour of the lower garment is green and yellow. He is well-dressed and wears beautiful ornaments with a crown on the head.

The illustrations (of, for example Mandra) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Mandra (मन्द्र).—One of the three places of the origination of articulate speech which is described as situated in the throat; cf. त्रीणि मन्द्रं मध्यममुत्तमं च । तेषु मन्द्रमुरसि वर्तते (trīṇi mandraṃ madhyamamuttamaṃ ca | teṣu mandramurasi vartate) Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. XIII. 17; cf. also मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि स्थानानि भवन्ति । (mandramadhyamatārāṇi sthānāni bhavanti |) T.Pr.XXII.11.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mandra (मन्द्र).—a. [mand rak Uṇ.2.13] Low, deep, grave hollow, rumbling (as sound); पयोदमन्द्रध्वनिना धरित्री (payodamandradhvaninā dharitrī) Ki.16.3;7.22; Me.11; R.6.56.

2) Ved. Delightful, pleasing, pleasant; एवं ब्रुवाणे वैकुण्ठे भृगुस्तन्मन्द्रया गिरा (evaṃ bruvāṇe vaikuṇṭhe bhṛgustanmandrayā girā) Bhāg.1.89.13.

3) Praiseworthy.

-ndraḥ 1 A deep sound, low tone.

2) A kind of drum.

3) A kind of elephant; 'भद्रा मन्द्रा मृगाश्चेति विज्ञेयास्त्रिविधा गजाः (bhadrā mandrā mṛgāśceti vijñeyāstrividhā gajāḥ)'; cf. Rām.1.6.25.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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