Mandra; 3 Definition(s)


Mandra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Mandra (मन्द्र, “grave”) refers to one of six “ornaments”, or ‘figures of speech’ (alaṃkāra). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 19, these six ornaments are part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa). The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. These ornaments dictate the type of recitation, eg. mandra and vilambita should be used in words expressing sharpness and roughness.

Uses of mandra: “the grave note proceed from the chest register and is to be used in despondency, weakness, anxiety, impatience, low-spiritedness, sickness, deep wound from weapons, fainting, intoxication, communicating secret words and the like”.

2) Mandra (मन्द्र, “low”) refers to “low pitches” and is one of the ten characteristics (gati) of the jāti (melodic class), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. It is also known as mandragati or mandrasvara. Jāti refers to a recognized melody-type and can be seen as a precursor to rāgas which replaced them.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 28.93-94, “three kinds of the low pitch movement (mandra-gati): that depending on the aṃśa, on the nyāsa, and on the apanyāsa. There is no pitch lower than that of the aṃśa notes (svara); in the nyāsa such a pitch will be separated by two notes, and when the gāndhāra is the graha and the nyāsa, ṛṣabha and dhaivata are seen to bear a low pitch”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Nāṭyaśāstra book cover
context information

Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

Śilpaśāstra (iconography)

Mandra (मन्द्र, “low”).—Illustration of mandra-grāma (lowest group of tones) according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of mandra-grāma is white. He holds a vīṇā (Indian lute) with both hands. The colour of the scarf is rosy and the colour of the lower garment is green and yellow. He is well-dressed and wears beautiful ornaments with a crown on the head.

The illustrations (of, for example Mandra) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Śilpaśāstra book cover
context information

Śilpaśāstra (शिल्पशास्त्र, shilpa-shastra) represents the ancient Indian science of creative arts such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vāstuśāstra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit grammar)

Mandra (मन्द्र).—One of the three places of the origination of articulate speech which is described as situated in the throat; cf. त्रीणि मन्द्रं मध्यममुत्तमं च । तेषु मन्द्रमुरसि वर्तते (trīṇi mandraṃ madhyamamuttamaṃ ca | teṣu mandramurasi vartate) Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. XIII. 17; cf. also मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि स्थानानि भवन्ति । (mandramadhyamatārāṇi sthānāni bhavanti |) T.Pr.XXII.11.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण, vyakarana) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedāṅga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyākaraṇa concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Relevant definitions

Search found 16 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Mandragrāma (मन्द्रग्राम) is another name for mandra: one of the three grāmas (groups) used in ...
Mandrasthāna (मन्द्रस्थान, “low voice”) refers to one of three “voices” (sthāna). According ...
Grāma (ग्राम) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reig...
Jāti (जाति).—The Classical metres are divided into three types viz. 1. vṛtta or varṇa, 2. mātrā...
Saṃhitā (संहिता).—Position of words or parts of words in the formation of a word quite near eac...
Alaṃkāra (अलंकार) refers to the “the figures of speech”.—The word alaṃkāra stands for a thing o...
svara (स्वर).—m A note in music; an accent; a vowel sound. svara bāhaṇēṃ To incline or lean to....
manda (मंद).—a Slow; doltish. Cold. Dim; faint Low. Mild. manda paḍaṇēṃ Proceed heavily- a work...
Aṃsa (अंस, “shoulder”) refers to that part of the human body from which the Buddha emitted nume...
Dīptī (दीप्ती) refers to “retaining aura” and represents one of the seven types of extraordinar...
nīca (नीच).—a Low, not high or tall. Mean, base. In music. Deep or bass.--- OR --- nīcā (नीचा)....
vilambita (विलंबित).—p Delayed; protracted. a Slow.
maṇḍaka (मंडक).—m S A preparation of wheaten flour. See the derivative māṇḍā.
Tāragrama (तारग्रम) is another name for tāra: one of the three grāmas (groups) used in Indian m...
Madhyagrāma (मध्यग्राम) is another name for madhya: one of the three grāmas (groups) used in In...

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