Hatha, Haṭha: 18 definitions


Hatha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Terebess Ázsia Lexikon: Haṭha Yoga

The word Haṭha (हठ, lit. force) denotes a system of physical techniques supplementary to yoga more broadly conceived; Haṭha Yoga is yoga that uses the techniques of Haṭha. Why these techniques were called Haṭha is not stated in the texts that teach them, but it seems likely that, originally at least, they were called thus because, like → tapas (asceticism), with which they were associated, they were difficult and forced their results to happen.

In its earliest formulations, Haṭha was used to raise and conserve the physical essence of life, identified in men as bindu (semen), which is otherwise constantly dripping downward from a store in the head and being expended. (The female equivalent, mentioned only occasionally in our sources, is rajas, menstrual fluid.)

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Haṭha (हठ) is another name for “Dhātrī” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning haṭha] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Haṭha (हठ) refers to “violent”, according to Śitikaṇṭha’s Mahānayaprakāśa.—If (consciousness) abides in the Point (bindu) one can drink the nectar of the Moon located above. It is the light of the Abode of the Moon. Achieve repose by the unfolding of the microcosm (aṇḍa-vikāsa). This is the unique and special (quality) of the light of the Abode of the Sun. The digestion (of multiplicity) is the power of the gastric fire of the navel because, even though (this) Fire pervades the entire body, the Violent digestion (haṭha-pāka) of diversity takes place in the belly.

2) Haṭha (हठ) refers to a “great force” according to the Jayadrathayāmala verse 1.45.104-105ab.—Accordingly, “If, having properly sustained the unfolding of the Śāmbhava (state) which is the sixteenth (energy of the Moon) that is merged within (universal) motion and, within the plane of the Fire of Time, one should know that then the god, by virtue of (that) great force (haṭhāt), is the very powerful Haṭhakeśvara”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Haṭha (हठ) refers to “force” (e.g., ‘to drive someone out with force’), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.16 (“Brahmā consoles the gods”).—Accordingly, as the Gods said to Brahmā: “O lord of the worlds, thanks to the boon received from you. The demon Tāraka is very haughty. Driving us out with force [i.e., haṭha] he has taken possession of our positions. Is it not known to you what misery has befallen us? Please dispel our misery quickly. We seek refuge in you. He torments us wherever we happen to stay by day or at night. Wherever we flee we see Tāraka. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Haṭha (हठ) is the name of a Pīṭha (sacred seat) [i.e., oṃ haṭhapīṭhāya svāhā], according to the Vāruṇī Pūjā [i.e., Varuni Worship] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

haṭha : (m.) violence.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Haṭha, (only as lexicogr. word; Dhtp 101=balakkāra) violence. (Page 727)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

haṭha (हठ).—m (S) Obstinacy, stubbornness, pertinacity. See under haṭa.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Haṭha (हठ).—

1) Violence, force.

2) Oppression, rapine.

3) Obstinacy.

4) Absolute necessity.

5) Going in the rear of an enemy.

6) Pistia Stratiotes (ākāśamūlī).

7) An unexpected gain; अकस्मादिह यः कश्चिदर्थं प्राप्नोति पूरुषः । तं हठेनेति मन्यन्ते स हि यत्नो न कस्यचित् (akasmādiha yaḥ kaścidarthaṃ prāpnoti pūruṣaḥ | taṃ haṭheneti manyante sa hi yatno na kasyacit) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.32.16 (com. acintitasyātarkitasya ca lābho haṭhaḥ). (haṭhena and haṭhāt are used adverbially in the sense of 'forcibly', 'violently', 'suddenly', 'against one's will'; ambālikā ca caṇḍavarmaṇā haṭhāt pariṇetumātmabhavanamanīyat Dk.; vānarān vārayāmāsa haṭhena madhureṇa ca Rām.

Derivable forms: haṭhaḥ (हठः).

--- OR ---

Hatha (हथ).—

1) A stroke, blow.

2) Killing.

3) Death.

4) A man who is sad or depressed.

Derivable forms: hathaḥ (हथः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Haṭha (हठ).—m.

(-ṭhaḥ) 1. Violence. 2. Oppression. 3. Rapine. mf. (-ṭhaḥ-ṭhī) An aquatic plant, (Pistia stratiotes.) E. haṭh to treat with violence, aff. ac . The instrumental and ablative singulars, “haṭhena” and “haṭhāt” are used as indeclinables in the sense of “forcibly,” “violently,” “suddenly.”

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Haṭha (हठ).—perhaps a dialect. form of hasta, I. m. 1. Violence, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 35, 11; abl. ṭhāt, By force, [Pañcatantra] 138, 1. 2. Rapine. Ii. m., f. ṭhī, A plant, Pistia stratiotes.

--- OR ---

Hatha (हथ).—i. e. han + tha, m. A man in despondency.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Haṭha (हठ).—[masculine] violence, force, obstinacy; °—, [ablative], & [instrumental] [adverb] violently, forcibly, necessarily, absolutely, by all means.

--- OR ---

Hatha (हथ).—[masculine] stroke, blow.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Haṭha (हठ):—[from haṭh] m. violence, force ([in the beginning of a compound], ena, and āt, ‘by force, forcibly’), [Rāmāyaṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] obstinacy, pertinacity ([in the beginning of a compound] and āt, ‘obstinately, persistently’), [Pañcatantra; Kathāsaritsāgara]

3) [v.s. ...] absolute or inevitable necessity (as the cause of all existence and activity; [in the beginning of a compound], āt, and ena, ‘necessarily, inevitably, by all means’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] = haṭha-yoga, [Catalogue(s)]

5) [v.s. ...] oppression, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] rapine, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] going in the rear of an enemy, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Pistia Stratiotes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Hatha (हथ):—[from han] m. a blow, stroke, [Ṛg-veda]

10) [v.s. ...] killing, slaughter, [ib.]

11) [v.s. ...] a man stricken with despair, [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 2 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Haṭha (हठ):—(ṭaḥ) 1. m. Violence, rapine. m. f. (ī) An aquatic plant.

2) Hatha (हथ):—(thaḥ) 1. m. A man in low spirits.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Haṭha (हठ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Haḍha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Hatha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Haṭha (हठ) [Also spelled hath]:—(nm) obstinacy, stubbornness; ~[dharmī] intransigence; ~[yoga] a type of Yoga; ~[yogī] one who practices [haṭhayoga; ~śīla] obstinate, stubborn; hence ~[śīlatā] (nf); —[karanā/ṭhānanā/pakaḍanā] to stubbornly stick to some resolve; to become obstinate; —[rakhanā] to yield or submit to one’s obstinate demand.

2) Hatha (हथ):——an allomorph of [hātha] (as in [hathakaḍī]) and [hāthī] (as in [hathasāra]) as it appears in many compound words; ~[udhāra] unrecored short-term cash loan; ~[kaṃḍā] sleight; trick, tactics; intrigue; ~[kaṃḍe dikhānā] to show one’s tricks; to give evidence of tactical capabilities; ~[kaṭā] having a hand dismembered; ~[kaḍī] handcuffs; ~[kaḍī ḍālanā] to handcuff; to arrest; ~[kaḍī paḍanā] to be handcuffed; to be arrested; ~[kala] a spanner; ~[golā] a hand-grenade; ~[cala] an adept in pinching things, a swindler; ~[chuṭa] in the habit of striking forthwith out of provocation; ~[phera] see ~[udhāra; ~banā] hand made; ~[bunā] hand-spun; ~[lapaka] one who pinches things, a swindler; ~[likhāī] hand-writing; hand-lettered.

3) Hātha (हाथ) [Also spelled hath]:—(nm) a hand; manual skill; the skill to strike; turn (in a game of cards); handle; arm (of a chair); -[āṃkhoṃ se lagānā] to give immense respect (in admiring an artistic masterpiece); —[āge karanā] to stretch out the hand (to give or take something); -[ājamānā] to have a fling at; to try one’s hand; -[ānā] to have in hand, to come under control; to gain; -[uṭhākara kahanā] to take a vow, to pledge; -[uṭhānā, kisī para] to lay hands on, to beat, to inflict a beating; —[uṭhā baiṭhanā] to strike all of a sudden; —[uṭhā lenā] to throw up one’s hands; —[utaranā] the arm-bone to be dislocated; —[ūṃcā karanā] to be bounteous; to be a spendthrift; to pray for; to bless; —[ūṃcā rahanā] to have an upper hand; to be in a position to oblige; —[ochā paḍanā] a stroke not to be full-blooded; —[kaṃgana ko ārasī kyā] the obvious needs no evidence; —[kaṭa jānā] to be helpless; to be helpless on account of a commitment; —[kaṭā denā/lenā] to be rendered helpless through a commitment; —[kalama karanā] to dismember a hand; —[kā kāma] the work in hand; handiwork; —[kā khilaunā] a puppet, a tool in the hands (of); —[kā jhūṭhā] dishonest in dealings; in the habit of pinching things; unreliable in money matters, —[kā diyā] gifted away; —[kānoṃ para rakhanā] to vow not to repeat; to vow never to do again; to swear incompetence to do; —[kā maila] (money) to be of no consequence, to be too trivial an object; —[kā saccā] honest in one’s dealings, reliable in money matters; —[kī kaṭhaputalī] see —[kā khilaunā; —kī bāta, (kisī ke]) something that one can do, something within one’s capability; —[kī lakaḍī] a support; —[kī saphāī] manual skill; nimbleness of the hand; finnesse in one’s stroke; —[ke tote uḍa jānā] to be stunned, to be extremely nervous; —[ke nīce ānā] to fall into one’s clutches, to be under the control (of); —[ko hātha najara na ānā/sūjhanā] to be pitch dark; —[ko hātha pahacānatā hai] an empty hand is no lure for a hawk; ~[kharca] pocket-money, personal expenses; —[khānā] to be slapped/struck; —[khālī jānā] a stroke/chance to be missed; a trick/device not to work; —[khālī na honā] to be busy; to have no time; —[khālī honā] to be penniless/in utter penury; to be free, to have no work in hand; —[khīṃcanā/khīca lenā] to withdraw support/active association; to refrain from financial aid/support; to wash one’s hands off; to draw/pull in one’s horns; —[khajalānā] to be a good augury for incoming money; to feel like slapping/beating; —[khulanā] to be bounteous; to be a spendthrift; to have money in hand; to be in the habit of striking readily; —[khūna se raṃge honā] hands to be stained in blood, to have committed murder; —[galanā] to be benumbed by cold; —[gale meṃ ḍālanā] to throw an arm embrace round the neck; to caress, to fondle; —[caḍhanā] to fall into the clutches of, to come under the control (of); —[calanā] to be nimble—fingered, to be quick at work; to be in the habit of beating/striking (others); —[cūmanā] lit. to kiss one’s hand—to be all praise for somebody’s handiwork; —[choḍanā] to (begin to) strike; —[jaḍanā] to implant a slap, to strike; —[jamanā] a slap to be implanted, a stroke to be given; to have one’s hand firmly (in); finnesse/perfection in a handiwork to be acquired; —[jamānā] to slap, to strike; to acquire finnesse/perfection in a handiwork; —[joḍakara] with cap/hat in hand, humbly; —[joḍa denā] to fold hands (—as symbolic of acceptance of defeat); to beg pardon; —[joḍanā] to salute by folded hands; to present one’s compliments; to entreat, to make an entreaty; to request forgiveness; (ironically) to have nothing to do any more; —[jhāḍanā] to give a slap; to go on striking; to show that one has no money on his person, to show one’s pennilessness; —[jhūṭhā paḍanā] to miss a stroke; an expert hand to lose its efficaciousness; to be rendered incapable for manual work; —[ḍālanā (kisī kāma meṃ)] to take in hand, to undertake a work; —[ḍālanā, kisī para] to have a fling at, to launch an attack on; to strike; —[ḍālate hicakicānā] to shiver on the brink, to hesitate to plunge; —[taṃga honā] to be tight, to be in a financial stringency; —[taka na hilanā] not to do a hand’s turn, not to make the slightest effort; —[thāmanā] to provide support, to intercept (beating); —[dabanā] to be in a crisis/in hot waters; to be in a tight corner; —[dabākara kharca karanā] to spend discreetly/with proper restriction; —[dikhānā] to give a proof of one’s efficacy; to get one’s palm read (by a palmist); —[dekhanā] to witness one’s efficacy/mettle; to read somebody’s palm; —[denā] to lend a hand: —[dhokara pīche paḍanā] to go heart and soul after; to concentrate all efforts to inflict harm on; —[dhonā, dho baiṭhanā] to lose, to write off; —[dhonā, bahatī gaṃgā meṃ] to make capital out of; to turn to personal advantage; —[na uṭhānā] to hold one’s hand, to refrain from punishing (or other action); —[na dharane denā] to yield to no persuasion/entreaties/arguments; to allow no quarter whatever; —[nabja/nāḍī para honā] to feel the pulse of, to know in and out; —[na sūjhanā, (hātha ko)] to be pitch dark; —[pakaḍate pahuṃcā pakaḍanā] to try to turn small concession into big liberties; to strive for ever bigger benefits out of someone; —[pakaḍanā] see —[thāmanā; —pakaḍe kī lāja rakhanā] to stand by a commitment for protection till the end; —[paḍa jānā/—paḍanā] to fall into the hands (of), to come one’s way; to obtain without effort; to be slapped; —[para kurāna/para gaṃgājala rakhanā] to swear by the Qoran/by the holy water of the Ganges; —[para totā pālanā] to ever nurse a wound etc; to allow a wound/boil etc. to persist; —[para dharā rahanā/honā] to be kept in readiness; —[para hātha dharakara baiṭha jānā] to be complacement; to be frustrated; —[para hātha dhare baiṭhe rahanā] to be utterly complacent, to sit idly; —[para hātha māranā] to make a commitment, to enter into a mutual agreement; —[pasāranā] to beg; to make an entreaty for help; —[pasāre jānā] to go empty-handed (to the other world); -[pāṃva kā javāba denā] to be incapacitated, to be rendered incapable (through disease or old age); -[pāṃva calanā] to be industrious; to be capable to work; -[pāṃva joḍanā] to make humble entreaties; -[pāṃva ṭhaṃḍe honā] to be on the verge of death; to pass away; to be stupefied/stunned; -[pāṃva ḍhīle honā] to be rendered muscleless/languid, to be wearied; -[pāṃva pīṭanā] to make futile efforts; -[pāṃva phūlanā] to look blue, to be in a flutter, to be nervous; to lose one’s wits; -[pāṃva phailānā] to extend one’s scope/sphere of influence, to gather more and more power; to grow; -[pāṃva bacānā] to keep oneself secure, to keep out of risk; —[pāṃva māranā] to make (frantic) efforts; to try one’s level best; -[pāṃva raha jānā] the limbs to be benumbed/to be incapacitated; -[pāṃva sīdhe karanā] to relax the limbs; -[pāṃva hāranā] to be incapacitated; to be demoralised; —[pāṃva hilānā] to work, to do something; —[pīle karanā] to give away in marriage; —[phera denā] to pinch, to pilfer; —[pheranā] to fondle, to caress; —[phailānā] to beg, to extend a needy hand for help; —[baṃṭānā] to lend a hand, to cooperate, to help/extend cooperation; —[bacānā] to defend oneself against a stroke; —[baḍhānā] to extend a hand; —[bāṃdhe khaḍe rahanā] to serve somebody hand and foot, to be at somebody’s beck and call; to be always in attendance, to be at the service of; —[bikanā/bikānā] to be a slave to, to be in utter subservience; —[becanā] to sell out to; —[baiṭhanā] to acquire finnesse in/practice of/expertise in; to be hit with full vigour; —[bhara kā kalejā honā] to have immense courage; to be in raptures; —[bhara kī jabāna honā] to be too intemperate in speech, to be insolently outspoken; —[bharanā] the hands to be wearied; —[bhejanā], ([ke]) to send through; —[maṃjanā] to acquire a finnesse (in doing a thing); —[majabūta karanā] to strengthen the hands of; —[malanā] to be remorseful; —[māranā] to pinch; to take a bet; to acquire control over/possession of; —[milanā] to shake hands (with); —[meṃ] in hand; —[meṃ khujalī honā] to feel like beating (somebody); (an omen which bids fair for a monetary gain) to anticipate a monetary gain; —[meṃ paḍanā] see —[ānā; —meṃ lānā] see [meṃ karanā; —meṃ nakela honā] to be under the control of, to move at the behest of; —[meṃ bāgaḍora honā] to have control over, to hold the reins of; —[meṃ meṃhadī lagī honā] to be absolutely idle; —[meṃ lenā] to take up; —[meṃ sanīcara honā] to be prone to lose everything; —[meṃ hātha] hand in hand; —[meṃ hātha denā] to give away in marriage; —[meṃ hātha honā] to be with; to be under the protection of; —[meṃ hunara honā] to be skilled in (a handiwork); —[meṃ honā, (ke)] to be under the sway of; —[raṃganā] to stain one’s hands with a sin/misdeed; to take a bribe; —[rakhanā, sira para] to give protection; —[ravāṃ karanā honā] to get one’s hand in to become at home in; —[ravāṃ rakhanā] to keep one’s hand in; —[raha jānā] the hand(s) to be benumbed; -[rokanā] to cause hindrance; to slacken the pace of work; to restrain from striking; —[laganā] to blunder upon; to find by fluke; to be touched by hand; (a work) to be initiated; —[lagānā] to touch; to commense a work; to lay hands on, to slap; —[lagāye kuṃhalānā] to be as tender as touch-me not; —[lagā mailā honā] to be as shining as to be rendered untidy by mere touch; —[sameṭanā] see —[khīṃcanā; —sādhanā] see —[ājamānā; —sāpha karanā] to polish off, to consume; to misappropriate; to put to death; —[sāpha honā] to have clean hands; to have finnesse (in work); to be misappropriated; —[sira para rakha kara ronā] to be full of remorse, to weep and wail; —[sira para rakhanā] to swear by; —[se jānā/nikalanā] to slip/get out of hand, to lose; —[se dila jānā] to lose heart to, to fall for; —[se be hātha honā] to get out of hand/control; —[hilāte ānā] to come empty-handed; —[honā] to have in; [hāthoṃ meṃ khelanā] to play somebody’s game, to play in the hands of; ([donoṃ]) [hāthoṃ sameṭanā] to amass huge wealth; [hāthoṃhātha] from hand to hand, in no time; —[uṭhā lenā] to give a rousing welcome, to receive with utmost readiness; •[bika jānā] to sell like hot cakes, to have a hot sale; •[lenā] to receive with great warmth; to extend a very cordial reception.

4) Hāthā (हाथा):—(nm) see [hatthā].

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Haṭha (ಹಠ):—[noun] = ಹಟ [hata].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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