Ava, Āva: 9 definitions

Introduction

Ava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ava°, (prefix) I. Relation between ava & o. Phonetically the difference between ava & o is this, that ava is the older form, whereas o represents a later development. Historically the case is often reversed — that is, the form in o was in use first & the form in ava was built up, sometimes quite independently, long afterwards. Okaḍḍhati, okappati, okappanā, okassati, okāra, okantati, okkamati, ogacchati, odāta and others may be used as examples. The difference in many cases has given rise to a differentiation of meaning, like E. ripe: rife, quash: squash; Ger. Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2).—A. The old Pāli form of the prefix is o. In same cases however a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its archaic character. In words forming the 2nd part of a cpd. we have ava, while the absolute form of the same word has o. See e.g. avakāsa (-°) › okāsa (°-); avacara › ocaraka; avatata; avadāta; avabhāsa; avasāna.—B. 1. the proportion in the words before us (early and later) is that o alone is found in 65% of all cases, ava alone in 24%, and ava as well as o in 11%. The proportion of forms in ava increases as the books or passages become later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 Nikāyas) are the foll. forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamati, okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati.—(1) The Pāli form (o°) shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit forms (ava°). See the foll. :

avakappanā harnessing: okappanā confidence; avakkanti (not Sk.): okkanti appearance;

avakkhitta thrown down: okkhitta subdued; avacara sphere of motion: ocaraka spy;

avatiṇṇa descended: otiṇṇa affected with love; avaharati to move down, put off: oharati to steal.

(2) In certain secondary verb-formations, arisen on Pāli grounds, the form o° is used almost exclusively pointing thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Pali. Among these formations are Deminutives in °ka usually; the Gerund & the Infinitive usually; the Causatives throughout.

II. Ava as prefix. (P. ava = Vedic ava & occasionally o; Av. ava; Lat. au- (aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.); Obg. u-; Oir. ō, ua. See further relations in Walde, Lat. Wtb. under au).—Meaning. (Rest: ) lower, low (opp. ut°, see e.g. uccâvaca high & low, and below III, c), expld. as heṭṭhā (DhA. IV, 54 under avaṃ) or adho (ibid. 153; SnA 290).—(Motion: ) down, downward, away (down), off; e.g. avasūra sun-down; adv. avaṃ (q. v. , opp. uddhaṃ).—(a) lit. away from, off: ava-kantati to cut off; °gaṇa away from the crowd; °chindati cut off; °yīyati fall off; °bhāsati shine out, effulge; °muñcati take off; °siṭṭha left over.—down, out, over: °kirati pour down or out over; °khitta thrown down; °gacchati go down; °gāheti dip down; °tarati descend; °patita fallen down; °sajjati emit; °siñcati pour out over; °sīdati sink down.—(b) fig. down in connection with verbs of emotion (cp. Lat. de- in despico to despise, lit. look down on), see ava-jānāti, °bhūta, °mānita, °vajja, °hasati. away from, i.e. the opposite of, as equivalent to a negation and often taking the place of the neg. prefix a° (an°), e.g. in avajaya (= ajaya), °jāta, °maṅgala (= a°), °pakkhin, °patta.

Affinities of ava.—(a) apa. There exists an exceedingly frequent interchange of forms with apa° and ava°, the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For a comparison of the two the BSk. forms are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature of the word in question. See on this apa 2 and cp. the foll. words under ava: avakata, °karoti, °khalita, °aṅga, ottappa, avattha, °nīta, °dāna, °pivati, °rundhati, °lekhati, °vadati, °varaka, °sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, °hita, avāpurīyati, avekkhati.—(b) abhi. The similarity between abhi & ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi II. b and ava II. a. The two prefixes are practically synonymous in the foll. words: °kaṅkhati, °kamati, °kiṇṇa, °khipati, °maddati, °rata, °lambati, °lekheti, °lepana, °siñcati.—(c) The contrary of ava is ut (cp. above II. 2). Among the frequent contrast-pairs showing the two, like E. up & down, are the foll. ukkaṃsâvakaṃsa, uggaman-oggamana, uccâvaca, ullaṅgheti-olaṅgheti, ullittâvalitta; ogilituṃuggilituṃ, onaman-unnamana. Two other combns. founded on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chiddâvacchidda and ava° in contrast with vi° in olambavilamba, olugga-vilugga. (Page 80)

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Āva, (misery, misfortune) see avā. (Page 112)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ava (अव).—ind S A preposition and prefix to words; corresponding to From, down from, away; and implying diminution, deterioration &c. Examples occur in order.

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avā (अवा).—m ( H) A potter's kiln. 2 The pile of pots (as burned or to be burned). Pr. jyānēṃ na pāhilā a0 tyānēṃ pāhilā divā. a0 utaraṇēṃ g. of s. To have one's pile of pots duly burned. 2 fig. To have all one's offspring live and attain to puberty. 3 To prosper in one's measures.

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avā (अवा).—f (aṃvā Mother.) See avājī.

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āva (आव).—m (ākāra S) Great show; imposing display; grand and mighty indications. v ghāla. 2 Neatness, seemliness, pleasingness of shape or exterior. 3 Courage, confidence, ardor, spirit, bold alacrity. v dhara. Ex. tōṃ amarēnda tayē vēḷā || āva dharī yuddhācā || 4 Grasp, power, hold, sphere of rule or capacity.

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āvā (आवा).—m R A handful of rice-plants, as uprooted from the āvaṇa in order to be re-set in the āvaṇū: also each tuft or cluster after transplantation: also each couple of brinjal-plants, chilies &c. regularly set in their new bed.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ava (अव).—ind A preposition and prefix to words; corresponding to 'from' or 'away,' and implying diminution, &c.

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avā (अवा).—m A porter's kiln. The pile of pots (as burned or to be burned). avā utaraṇēṃ To have one's pile of pots duly burned. Fig. To have all one's off- spring live and attain to puberty. To prosper in one's measures.

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āva (आव).—m Great show. Neatness. Courage. Grasp. āva ghalaṇēṃ To make a show of.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ava (अव).—Favour; अग्नेरवेण मरुताम् (agneraveṇa marutām) Rv.1.128.5.

Derivable forms: avaḥ (अवः).

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Ava (अव).—ind. (the initial a is sometimes dropped, as in pūrvāparau toyanidhī vagāhya Ku.1.1)

1) (As a preposition) Away, off, away from, down; कृत्वा मुखान्यवशुचः श्वसनेन शुष्यत् (kṛtvā mukhānyavaśucaḥ śvasanena śuṣyat) Bhāg.1.29.29.

2) (As a prefix to verbs) It expresses (a) determination; अवधृ, अवसो (avadhṛ, avaso); (b) diffusion, pervasion; अवकॄ-कीर्ण (avakṝ-kīrṇa); (c) disrespect; अवज्ञा, अवमन् (avajñā, avaman); (d) littleness; व्रीहीनवहन्ति (vrīhīnavahanti); (e) support, resting upon; अवलम्ब् (avalamb); (f.) purification, अवदात (avadāta); (g) depreciation, discomfiture; अवहन्ति शत्रून् (avahanti śatrūn) (parābhavati); (h) commanding; अवक्लृप् (avaklṛp); (i) depression, bending down; अवतृ, अवगाह् (avatṛ, avagāh) (j) knowledge; अवगम्, अवइ (avagam, avai).

3) As the first member of Tat. compounds it means अबक्रुष्ट (abakruṣṭa); अवकोकिलः (avakokilaḥ) = अवक्रुष्टः कोकिलया (avakruṣṭaḥ kokilayā) Sk.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ava (अव).—as neg. prefix with nouns (so also in Pali): see ava-kāma-sevā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ava (अव).—ind. A preposition and prefix to words, corresponding to off, from, down from, out, away, &c. and implying; 1. Diminution. 2. Depreciation. 3. Diffusion. 4. Support, resting. 5. Commanding. 6. Purifying, correcting. 7. Knowledge. 8. Disrespect. 9. Nourishing. As avagantu To go away; avajñātuṃ To disrespect; avatarituṃ To come down, to descend; avasthātuṃ To remain in or on; avaharttuṃ To take off or away; also avamaḥ a low man; avāk reverse, behind; avakokilaḥ a koil with a bad voice, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ava (अव).—a prefix. Away, off, down. I. Combined and compounded with verbs and their derivatives. Ii. Former part of compounded nouns.

— Cf. in [Latin] autem, aut.

— This prefix is based on a pronoun ava, which is preserved in the Zend language, and in the former part of the compounded pronoun

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ava (अव).—1. [adverb] down, off; mostly as [prefix] in nouns and verbs, rarely as [preposition] [with] [ablative]

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Ava (अव).—2. [masculine] favour, protection.

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Āva (आव).—[pronoun] st. of 1^st [person or personal] [dual]

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Āvā (आवा).—weave or lay in, interweave; also =

Āvā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms ā and (वा).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ava (अव):—[from av] 1. ava m. favour, [Ṛg-veda i, 128, 5]

2) [v.s. ...] (cf niravat.)

3) 2. ava ind. (as a prefix to verbs and verbal nouns expresses) off, away, down, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

4) (exceptionally as a preposition with [ablative]) down from, [Atharva-veda vii, 55, I]

5) (for another use of this preposition See ava-kokila.)

6) 3. ava (only [genitive case] [dual number] avor with vām, ‘of you both’, corresponding to sa tvam, ‘thou’, etc.), this, [Ṛg-veda vi, 67, 11; vii, 67, 4 and] ( for vām), [x, 132, 5]

7) [Zend] [pronoun] ava; [Slavonic or Slavonian] ovo; cf. also the syllable, αὐ in αὐτός, αὖ, αὖθι, etc.; [Latin] au-t, autem, etc.

8) Āva (आव):—the base of the dual cases of the pronoun of the 1st person

9) Nom. Acc. āvām ([Vedic or Veda] āvam)

10) Inst. Dat.. Abl. āvābhyām ([Vedic or Veda] Abl. also āvat)

11) Gen. Loc. āvayos.

12) Āvā (आवा):—[=ā-√vā] [Parasmaipada] -vāti, to blow towards or upon, [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Kirātārjunīya; Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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