Asava, Āsava, Āśava, Ashava, Āsāva: 30 definitions
Asava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Āśava can be transliterated into English as Asava or Ashava, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Asav.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Āśava (आशव) refers to a wood-apple (kapittha) liqueur (a medicated wine). It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā. The literal translation of Āśava is “quickness, rapidity”.
2) Āsava (आसव) refers to a medicated spirituous liquid, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. The substance is prepared from honey and treacle, with the addition of various medicinal substances. Next, the substance is being steeped in water and will be laid aside in earthen jars for various fermentations. Āsava is prepared using raw vegetables for fermentation, as opposed to Ariṣṭa, which uses a decoction of drugs.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Āsava (आसव) refers to a type of liqueur, which is mentioned in verse 3.21-22 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] having bathed (and) besmeared oneself with camphor, sandal, aloe, and saffron; (and) eating old barley and wheat, honey, and the roasted meat of game; one shall together with friends drink unvitiated āsava and ariṣṭa liqueur, rum, wine, and mead mixed with mango juice, offered by one’s love after (her) having tasted (them), [...]”.
Note: āsava and ariṣṭa are two brands of liqueur differing in their share of liquid and solid ingredients (Ḍalhaṇa on Suśrutasaṃhitā I.45.197). The former is prepared from 100 palas of wood-apple extract, 500 palas of inspissated sugar-cane juice, and 1 prastha of honey (Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra II.25.19). The latter is made either, according to the Mitākṣarā, of soap-berries and molasses or, according to the Matsyaśuktatantra, of bael roots, plums, and sugar (Mitra, Indo-Aryans I p. 412).Source: Academia.edu: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics
Āsava and Ariṣṭa (Medicated wines): These forms of medicines are produced by fermentation process. Āsavas are made with juices of medicinal herbs soaked in solution of sugar or jaggery. Ariṣṭas are prepared by decoction mixed with solution of sugar or jaggery. Both āsava and ariṣṭa are in liquid form, have sweet taste and acquire strength with passing of time. Example: Drakshāsava and Dasamūlāriṣṭa. Āsavas are mostly used in respiratory diseases and ariṣṭas are meant for general disorders like arthritis, allergy and anemia. The absorption of medicines from the gut is faster because the self-generated alcohol acts like carrier.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Āsava (आसव) refers to “spirituous liquor”, according to the Vālmīkirāmāyaṇa Sundarakāṇḍa 11.22 (also, Kumārasambhava IV.12), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Vālmīkirāmāyaṇa mentions two varieties of suras ie. surā and kṛtasurā (ordinary one and the fermented one), four varieties of āsavas (spirituous liquor) such as puṣpāsava, phalāsava, madhvāsava and śarkarāsava and two more varieties such as divya and prasanna.
Different types of wines are described in the works of Kālidāsa. Madya and madira are described in Ṛtusamhāra, āsava, madhu and śīdhu in Raghuvaṃśa, vāruṇī in Kumārasaṃbhava and kādambarī in Abhijñānaśākuntala.Source: Ancient Science of Life: Preparation of Arjunāriṣṭa
Āsava (आसव) and Ariṣṭa are fermented preparations of medicinal plants. The fermentation procedure adopted to prepare these preparations is termed as ‘sandhāna-kalpanā‘ and the ferment used to stimulate fermentation is termed as ‘sandhāna-dravya‘. Āsavas are usually prepared by fermenting expressed juice (svarasa), whereas Ariṣṭas are prepared from fermentation of decoctions. Sugar or jaggery and powders (cūrṇas) of medicinal plants as required along with a natural ferment are added to these two liquids and they are left in a closed container till the fermentation is completed. Āsava and Ariṣṭas can be prepared from svarasa or kvātha (as the case may be) of single plant or from a mixture of ‘svarasa‘ or ‘kvātha‘ from multiple plants.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Āsava (आसव) and Ariṣṭa refers to “herbal wines” (a type of medicinal fermented drugs) and is a Sanskrit technical term appearing in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva..—Āsava and ariṣṭa (fermented drugs) are the varieties of herbal wines subjected to natural fermentation. For preparing them 12.288ltrs of liquid, 4.8kg jaggary, honey—half of jaggary and powdered dugs—one tenth of jaggary are used. Being properly cooked they are poured in an earthen pot smeared with ghee and a little turmeric powder for avoiding the whole turning sour. Then it is kept in underground cellar or heap of grain for about a month for fermentation. Preparation of both is same except that for āsava decoction of the drug is used while for ariṣṭa, svarasa is used or the drugs are simply added. In fact, they operate as wines and at the same time they possess the qualities of drug. They are stimulants having stomachic properties.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Āsava (आसव).—Also pāna; different kinds of; forbidden to Brāhmaṇas, widows and girls.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 7. 63.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy
Asava is a liquid obtained by fermentation of prescribed materials immersed in water for a month in a jar, closely covered. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Asava (असव).—Asus of the right ascension or the time in the asus of rising at the equator. Note: Asava is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsMental effluent, pollutant, or fermentation. Four qualities - sensuality, views, becoming, and ignorance - that "flow out" of the mind and create the flood of the round of death and rebirth.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
M (That which does unceasingly appear). Mental impurities. The four asavas are:
(lit: influxes), 'cankers', taints, corruption's, intoxicant biases.
There is a list of four (as in D. 16, Pts.M., Vibh.):
- the canker of sense-desire (kāmāsava)
- of (desiring eternal) existence (bhavāsava)
- of (wrong) views (ditthāsava)
- of ignorance (avijjāsava)
A list of three, omitting the canker of views, is possibly older and is more frequent in the Suttas, e.g. in M.2, M.9, D.33; A.III.59, 67; A.VI.63.
In Vibh. (Khuddakavatthu Vibh.) both the 3-fold and 4-fold division are mentioned. The fourfold division also occurs under the name of 'floods' (ogha) and 'yokes' (yoga).
Through the path of Stream-Entry, the canker of views is destroyed; through the path of Non-Returning, the canker of sense-desire; through the path of Arahantship, the cankers of existence and ignorance. M. 2 shows how to overcome the cankers, namely, through insight, sense-control, avoidance, wise use of the necessities of life, etc. For a commentarial exposition, see Atthasālini Tr. I, p. 63f: II, pp. 475ff.
Khīnāsava, 'one whose cankers are destroyed', or 'one who is canker-free', is a name for the Arahat or Holy One. The state of Arahantship is frequently called āsavakkhaya, 'the destruction of the cankers'. Suttas concluding with the attainment of Arahantship by the listeners, often end with the words: "During this utterance, the hearts of the Bhikkhus were freed from the cankers through clinging no more" (anupādāya āsavehi cittāni vimuccimsū'ti).Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
One of the groups of defilements; Asava can be translated as canker, poison or intoxicant.
There are four asavas (Dhammasangani 1096-1100):
- the canker of sensuous desire, kamasava
- the canker of becoming, bhavasava
- the canker of wrong view, ditthasava
- the canker of ignorance, avijjasava
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism
Āsava is used in Buddhist scripture, philosophy, and psychology. The glossary of the Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy definies āsava/āśrava as:
inflow, influx, influence; mental bias or canker, cankers that keep one bound to the world of samsāra; used particularly in Jainism and Buddhism.
Āsava is a Pali term (Sanskrit: Āśrava);
For the philosophical term in Jainism, see Asrava.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
āsava : (m.) 1. that which flows; 2. spirit; 3. discharge from a sore; 4. ideas which intoxicate the mind.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Āsava, (fr. ā + sru, would corresp. to a Sk. *āsrava, cp. Sk. āsrāva. The BSk. āśrava is a (wrong) sankritisation of the Pāli āsava, cp. Divy 391 & kṣīnāśrava) that which flows (out or on to) outflow & influx. 1. spirit, the intoxicating extract or secretion of a tree or flower, O. C. in Vin. IV, 110 (four kinds); B. on D. III, 182 (five kinds) DhsA. 48; KhA 26; J. IV, 222; VI, 9.—2. discharge from a sore, A. I, 124, 127 = Pug. 30.—3. in psychology, t. t. for certain specified ideas which intoxicate the mind (bemuddle it, befoozle it, so that it cannot rise to higher things). Freedom from the “Āsavas” constitutes Arahantship, & the fight for the extinction of these āsavas forms one of the main duties of man. On the difficulty of translating the term see Cpd. 227. See also discussion of term āsava (= āsavantī ti āsavā) at DhsA. 48 (cp. Expositor pp. 63 sq). See also Cpd. 227 sq. , & especially Dhs. trsl. 291 sq.—The 4 āsavas are kām°, bhav°, diṭṭh°, avijj°, i.e. sensuality, rebirth (lust of life), speculation and ignorance.—They are mentioned as such at D. II, 81, 84, 91, 94, 98, 123, 126; A. I, 165 sq. , 196; II, 211; III, 93, 414; IV, 79; Ps. I, 94, 117; Dhs. 1099, 1448; Nd2 134; Nett 31, 114 sq.—The set of 3, which is probably older (kāma°, bhava°, avijjā°) occurs at M. I, 55; A. I, 165; III, 414; S. IV, 256; V, 56, 189; It. 49; Vbh. 364. For other connections see Vin. I, 14 (anupādāya āsavehi cittani vimucciṃsu), 17, 20, 182; II, 202; III, 5 (°samudaya, °nirodha etc.); D. I, 83, 167; III, 78, 108, 130, 220, 223, 230, 240, 283; M. I, 7 sq. , 23, 35, 76, 219, 279, 445 (°ṭhāniya); II, 22; III, 72, 277; S. II, 187 sq. (°ehi cittaṃ vimucci); III, 45 (id.); IV, 107 (id.), 20; V, 8, 28, 410; A. I, 85 sq. (vaḍḍhanti), 98, 165 (°samudaya, °nirodha etc.), 187; II, 154 (°ehi cittaṃ vimuttaṃ), 196; III, 21, 93 (°samudaya, °nirodha etc.), 245, 387 sq. , 410, 414; IV, 13, 146 (°pariyādāna end of the ā.), 161 (°vighāta-pariḷāha); V, 70, 237; Th. 2, 4, 99, 101 (pahāsi āsave sabbe); Sn. 162, 374, 535 (pl. āsavāni), 546, 749, 915, 1100; Dh. 93, 253, 292; Nd1 331 (pubb°); Vbh. 42, 64, 426; Pug. 11, 13, 27, 30 sq. ; Miln. 419; DhsA. 48; ThA. 94, 173; KhA 26; DA. I, 224; Sdhp. 1; Pgdp 65 (piyāsava-surā, meaning?).
Referring specially to the extinction (khaya) of the āsavas & to Arahantship following as a result are the foll. passages: (1) āsavānaṃ khaya D. I, 156; S. II, 29, 214; III 57, 96 sq, 152 sq; IV, 105, 175; V, 92, 203, 220, 271, 284; A. I, 107 sq. , 123 sq. , 232 sq. , 273, 291; II, 6, 36, 44 sq. , 149 sq. , 214; III 69, 114, 131, 202, 306, 319 sq. ; IV, 83 sq. , 119, 140 sq. , 314 sq. ; V, 10 sq. , 36, 69, 94 sq, 105, 132, 174 sq. , 343 sq. ; It. 49; Pug. 27, 62; Vbh. 334, 344; Vism. 9; DA. I, 224; cp. °parikkhaya A V 343 sq. See also arahatta formula C.—(2) khīṇāsava (adj.) one whose Āsavas are destroyed (see khīṇa) S. I, 13, 48, 53, 146; II 83, 239; III, 199, 128, 178; IV, 217; A I 77, 109, 241, 266; IV, 120, 224, 370 sq. ; V 40, 253 sq. ; Ps. II 173; cp. parikkhīṇā āsavā A. IV, 418, 434, 451 sq. ; āsavakhīṇa Sn. 370.—(3) anāsava (adj.) one who is free from the āsavas, an Arahant Vin. II, 148 = 164; D. III, 112; S I 130; II, 214, 222; III, 83; IV, 128; A. I, 81, 107 sq, 123 sq. , 273, 291; II, 6, 36, 87, 146; III, 19, 29, 114, 166; IV, 98, 140 sq. , 314 sq. , 400; A. V, 10 sqQ, 36, 242, 340; Sn. 1105, 1133; Dh. 94, 126, 386; Th. I, 100; It. 75; Nd2 44; Pv. II, 615; Pug. 27; Vbh. 426; Dhs. 1101, 1451; VvA. 9Q Cp. nirāsava ThA. 148.—Opp. sāsava S III 47; V, 232; A. I, 81 V. 242; Dhs. 990; Nett 10; Vism. 13, 438. (Page 114)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
āsava (आसव).—m S Spirit distilled from sugar or molasses: also spirituous liquor gen. 2 A bolus prepared from herbs, sugar, spices, and various medicaments.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
āsava (आसव).—m Spirit distilled from sugar, &c. A bolus prepared from herbs, sugar, spices and various medicaments.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Āśava (आशव).—[āśorbhāvaḥ aṇ]
1) Speed, quickness.
2) Distilled spirit; more usually written आसव (āsava) q. v.
Derivable forms: āśavam (आशवम्).
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Āsava (आसव).—see under आसु (āsu).
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Āsava (आसव).—[ā su-aṇ]
3) Any spirituous liquor (distilled from sugar, molasses &c.); अनासवाख्यं करणं मदस्य (anāsavākhyaṃ karaṇaṃ madasya) Ku.1.13; कुमारी°, द्राक्षा° (kumārī°, drākṣā°) &c; यच्च पक्वैषधाम्बुभ्यां सिद्धं मद्यं स आसवः (yacca pakvaiṣadhāmbubhyāṃ siddhaṃ madyaṃ sa āsavaḥ) Bhāva. P. Mādhava, however, seems to differ and says, शीधुरिक्षुरसैः पक्वैरपक्वै- रासवो भवेत् । मैरेयं धातकीपुष्पैर्गुडधानाम्लसंहितम् (śīdhurikṣurasaiḥ pakvairapakvai- rāsavo bhavet | maireyaṃ dhātakīpuṣpairguḍadhānāmlasaṃhitam) ||; आसवरागताम्रम् (āsavarāgatāmram) Ki.16.46.
5) A vessel for liquor.
Derivable forms: āsavaḥ (आसवः).
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Āsāva (आसाव).—A presser, or one who extracts Soma juice.
Derivable forms: āsāvaḥ (आसावः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-vaṃ) A spirit distilled from molasses: see āsava.
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(-vaṃ) 1. Rum, spirit distilled from sugar or molasses. 2. Spirituous liquor in general. E. āṅ before ṣūñ to be generated, and ap aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Āsava (आसव).—i. e. ā-su + a, m. A distilled spirit, Mahābhārata 16, 30.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Āsava (आसव).—1. [masculine] spirituous liquor, rum.
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Āsava (आसव).—2. [masculine] excitement, impulse.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Āśava (आशव):—a See p. 158, col. 1.
2) [from āśu] b n. ([gana] pṛthv-ādi, [Pāṇini 5-1, 122]) quickness, rapidity.
3) Āsava (आसव):—[=ā-sava] [from ā-su] 1. ā-sava m. distilling, distillation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] decoction
5) [v.s. ...] rum, spirit distilled from sugar or molasses, spirituous liquor in general
6) [v.s. ...] juice, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta; Vikramorvaśī; Prabodha-candrodaya; Yājñavalkya] etc.
7) [v.s. ...] the nectar or juice of a flower, [Śiśupāla-vadha vi, 7]
8) [v.s. ...] the nectar or juice of the lips (of a woman), [Śāntiśataka]
9) Āsāva (आसाव):—[=ā-sāva] [from ā-su] m. (a priest) who presses out the Soma juice, [Ṛg-veda viii, 103, 10.]
10) Āsava (आसव):—[=ā-sava] [from ā-sū] 2. ā-sava m. exciting, enlivening, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Āśava (आशव):—(vaṃ) 1. n. Rum.
2) Āsava (आसव):—[ā-sava] (vaṃ) 1. n. Rum.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Āsava (आसव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Āsava.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Āsava (आसव) [Also spelled asav]:—(nm) nourishing and intoxicating liquor prepared from yeast or ferment.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Asava (असव) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Asu.
2) Āsava (आसव) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āsru.
3) Āsava (आसव) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āsru.
4) Āsava (आसव) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āśrava.
5) Āsava (आसव) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āsava.
6) Āsava (आसव) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āśrava.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] an extract of anything got by boiling; an extract produced by decocting.
2) [noun] a product of distillation; liquid obtained by distilling.
3) [noun] any spirituous liquor.
4) [noun] the sweetish liquid in many flowers, used by bees for the making of honey; nectar.
5) [noun] the principle that characterises all living beings and distinguishes them from non-living beings; life.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+30): Asava Sutta, Asavadha, Asavadhana, Asavadhanata, Asavadhanate, Asavadhani, Asavadru, Asavadruma, Asavahiya, Asavakaraka, Asavakkhaya, Asavakkhaya Sutta, Asavala, Asavali, Asavalli, Asavana, Asavanam Khaya Sutta, Asavane, Asavanna, Asavara.
Ends with (+120): Abharadvasava, Acaryasava, Acharyasava, Anasava, Anikkasava, Antahprasava, Anuyajaprasava, Aprasava, Apratiprasava, Ardhacamdraprasava, Asannaprasava, Ashvashava, Asyasava, Avasava, Avijjasava, Bamdibasava, Basava, Bhavasava, Bhuktasava, Bidibasava.
Full-text (+138): Madhvasava, Surasava, Arishta, Asavadru, Bhavasava, Asyasava, Sasava, Smarasava, Kusumasava, Kamasava, Pushpasava, Khinasava, Maireya, Ditthasava, Vaktrasava, Asava Sutta, Vadanasava, Phalasava, Sabbasava Sutta, Acaryasava.
Search found 55 books and stories containing Asava, Āsava, Āśava, Ashava, Āsāva, A-sava, Ā-sava, Ā-sāva; (plurals include: Asavas, Āsavas, Āśavas, Ashavas, Āsāvas, savas, sāvas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 6 - Avijjā and Āsava < [Chapter V - Buddhist Philosophy]
Part 7 - Sīla and Samādhi < [Chapter V - Buddhist Philosophy]
A Discourse on Paticcasamuppada (by Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 12 - Fermented non-alcoholics (1-2): Asava and Arista < [Chapter XXXIII - Spirituous liquors (Sandhana or Samdhana)]
Part 1 - Characteristics of Sandhana or Samdhana (liquors) < [Chapter XXXIII - Spirituous liquors (Sandhana or Samdhana)]
Part 14 - Dietary presecriptions and prohibitions when taking iron < [Chapter IV - Metals (4): Lauha (iron)]
Chapter IV - The Intoxicant Group < [Part I]
Chapter VII - The Group Of The Floods < [Part I]
Part V - On The Chief Subject Of Inquiry < [Introductory Essay]
Cetasikas (by Nina van Gorkom)
Chapter 21 - Different Groups Of Defilements Part I < [Part III - Akusala Cetasikas]
Chapter 6 - Concentration < [Part I - The Universals]
Chapter 11 - Enthusiasm < [Part II - The Particulars (pakinnaka)]
Introducing Buddhist Abhidhamma (by Kyaw Min, U)