Akranda, Ākranda, Akramda: 14 definitions


Akranda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)

Ākranda refers to “a rearward friend” and represents one of the twelve categories of the maṇḍala system laid out by Kauṭilya (4th century BCE) and Kāmandaka (7th century A.D.). These twelve cateogires of state can be broadly applied to Gaṇapatideva  (r. 1199-1262 A.D.) and the Kākatīya empire.—The Sēuṇas were the rearward friends. Since the beginning of Gaṇapatideva's reign, friendly relations were existed.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Ākranda (आक्रन्द) refers to “kings attacked in the rear”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The Moon presides over citadels fortified by hills or by water, over Kosala, Bharukaccha, the sea, the city of Roma, the country of Tuṣāra, dwellers in forests, the islands of Taṅgaṇa, Hala and Strīrājya in the big seas. She presides over sweet juice, flowers, fruits, water, salt, gems, conch shells, pearls, creatures of water, paddy, barley, medicinal plants, wheat, Somayajis, kings attacked in the rear (ākranda), and Brāhmaṇas. [...]”

2) Ākranda (आक्रन्द) is the name of the sun (when in mid-heaven), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 17) (“On planetary conjunctions—grahayuddha”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The Sun when in mid-heaven is known as an Ākranda planet; when in the east he is known as a Paura planet and when in the west he is known as a Yāyin planet. Mercury, Jupiter and Saturn are always known as Paura planets. The Moon is always known as an Ākranda planet”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Ākranda (आक्रन्द) refers to “calling out for help”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [after the Bhagavān taught the heart-dhāraṇī-mantrapadas], “Immediately after this Nāga-heart-dhāraṇī-mantrapada had been uttered by the Bhagavān, then all Nāgas trembled, their bodies became weak, putrid and foul-smelling, and they were burning like a fire-flame. Being burnt (paritapta) they called the Bhagavān for help (ākranda) in a loud voice, and addressed him, ‘O Bhagavān, extremely dreadful mantrapadas have been uttered. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ākranda (आक्रन्द) refers to “lamenting”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “A god becomes [filled] with lamenting (sa-ākranda), a dog ascends to heaven, a Brāhman might become discernible in substance [as a dog] or an insect or even a low outcaste. Like an actor here on the stage, the embodied soul continually takes on individual characters [and] he abandons others”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ākranda (आक्रन्द).—

1) Weeping, crying out; किं क्रन्दसि दुराक्रन्द (kiṃ krandasi durākranda) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.29.

2) Calling, invoking, calling out to; आक्रन्दे चाप्यपैहीति न दण्डं मनुरब्रवीत् (ākrande cāpyapaihīti na daṇḍaṃ manurabravīt) Manusmṛti 8.292.

3) Sound, warcry, a cry (in general); आक्रन्द उदभूत्तत्र (ākranda udabhūttatra) Kathāsaritsāgara 1.94.

4) A friend, defender; दष्टमेवमनाक्रन्दे भद्रे काममहाहिना (daṣṭamevamanākrande bhadre kāmamahāhinā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.172.9.

5) A brother.

6) A fierce or violent combat, war, battle.

7) A place of crying.

8) A king who prevents an ally from aiding another; a king whose kingdom lies next but one. पार्ष्णिग्राहं च संप्रेक्ष्य तथाक्रन्द्रं च मण्डले (pārṣṇigrāhaṃ ca saṃprekṣya tathākrandraṃ ca maṇḍale) Manusmṛti 7.27 (see Kull. thereon). cf. also Kau. A.6.2. cf... आक्रन्दो दारुणे रणे । आरावे रोदने त्रातरि (ākrando dāruṇe raṇe | ārāve rodane trātari) ... ()| Nm. मित्रमाक्रन्दाभ्यां वा व्यापादयितुकामः (mitramākrandābhyāṃ vā vyāpādayitukāmaḥ) Kau. A.1.16.

Derivable forms: ākrandaḥ (आक्रन्दः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākranda (आक्रन्द).—mfn.

(-ndaḥ-ndā-ndaṃ) Who checks or restrains. m.

(-ndaḥ) 1. Crying, crying out. 2. Calling. 3. Weeping, sobbing. 4. Sound. 5. Violence. 6. Furious or violent combat. 7. A friend. 8. A brother. 9. A king, a lord. 10. A usurper. 11. A king who prevents an ally from aiding another. E. āṅ, kranda to cry, to sound, &c. ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākranda (आक्रन्द).—[ā-krand + a], m. 1. Calling loud, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 292. 2. Cry of lamentation, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 10, 94. 3. A king, whose kingdom lies next but one, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 207; cf. Kām. Nītis. viii. 17; 43; 46; sqq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākranda (आक्रन्द).—[masculine] cry, call; friend, protector, [especially] the neighbour of a (king’s) neighbour.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ākranda (आक्रन्द):—[=ā-kranda] [from ā-krand] m. crying, crying out, [Manu-smṛti viii, 292; Rāmāyaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] war-cry, [Atharva-veda xii, 1, 41]

3) [v.s. ...] lamenting, weeping, [Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] ‘a friend or protector’ [only [negative] an-ākranda mf(ā)n. ‘not having on whom to call for help’, ‘without a protector’ [Mahābhārata i, 6568; iii, 13859]]

5) [v.s. ...] a king who is the friend of a neighbouring king and checks the attack made on him by another king (called pārṣṇi-grāha q.v.), [Manu-smṛti vii, 207; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

6) [v.s. ...] (= saṃgrāma) war, battle, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākranda (आक्रन्द):—[ā-kranda] (ndaḥ) 1. m. Crying; calling.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ākranda (आक्रन्द) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Akkaṃda.

[Sanskrit to German]

Akranda in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ākraṃda (ಆಕ್ರಂದ):—

1) [noun] = ಆಕ್ರಂದನ [akramdana].

2) [noun] a fierce combat; a war; a battle.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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