Akirna, Ākīrṇa: 17 definitions


Akirna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Akirn.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण) refers to “at a meeting of people”, and is mentioned in verse 2.40-44 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Ākīrṇa is explained by Indu in no less than four different ways: (1) as ākīrṇam, i.e. “pṛthagjanaiḥ... itastato vyāptam”—“obtained by various people here and there”; (2) as ākīrṇe, i.e. “janasaṃsadi”—“at a meeting of people”; (3) as ākīrṇam, i.e. “janair ākīrṇam”—“scattered around by people”; and (4) as ākīrṇāḥ, i.e. “dhūrtāḥ”—“rogues”. The Tibetans have decided in favour of the second possibility.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण) refers to “crowded (with flocks of birds)”, according to the Skandapurāṇa 2.2.13 (“The Greatness of Kapoteśa and Bilveśvara”).—Accordingly: as Jaimini said to the Sages: “[...] [Dhūrjaṭi (Śiva)] went to the holy spot Kuśasthalī. He performed a very severe penance near Nīla mountain. [...] By the power of his penance that holy spot became one comparable to Vṛndāvana, the forest near Gokula. [...] It was full of different kinds of flocks of birds [i.e., nānāpakṣin-gaṇa-ākīrṇa]. It was a comfortable place of resort for all creatures. Since by means of his penance Śiva became (small) like a dove, he came to be called Kapoteśvara at the behest of Murāri (Viṣṇu). It is at his bidding that the Three-eyed Lord always stays here along with Mṛḍānī (Pārvatī)”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण) or Samākīrṇa refers to “(that forest which is) full of (animals)”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] One may perform the Block-of-Wood Observance in a forest full of (sam-ākīrṇa/sam-ākula) bears, tigers and lions, conquering the urges to sleep and eat, [constantly] reciting. If one takes on the appearance of a woman and sings and dances, adorned with bracelets, with a winnowing fan, ball and plait, one observes the Colourful Observance. With a weapon in hand, full of compassion, if one wanders like a saviour of creatures (?) focussed upon recitation, meditation and worship, one performs the Warrior Observance. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण) refers to “(a place) filled (with a great multitude of men)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as the Lord said to the Bodhisattva Ratnaśrī: “[...] That Kāyabandhana universe was, son of good family, thriving, prosperous, safe, well-provided, filled with a great multitude of men (ākīrṇa-bahujana-manuṣya), adorned with seven precious jewels, peaceful and delightful, pleasant to touch like a soft cloth, displayed by the lotus of gold from the Jāmbū river, decorated with all kinds of luminous jewels, patterned like a chess-board, and even like the palm of the hand. Just like the enjoyment and entertainment of the Paranirmitavaśavartin gods, all the people in that universe, staying in celestial palace and pavilions, enjoyed food and drink as they wished”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण) refers to “(being) filled”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Where is the body, which is filled (pūrna; var.—ākīrṇa) with blood, flesh and fat, has a skeleton of slender bones, is bound with tendons and is of bad odour, praised? Continually pouring forth putrid smells through [its] nine orifices, the human body is ever perishable [and] dependent on other [things]”.

Synonyms: Vyāpta, Pūrna, Avakīrṇa, Ālīḍha, Samālīḍha, Samākīrṇa, Saṃbhṛta.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण).—a (S) Crowded. In comp. in the sense of Filled with; studded thick with; covered with; overspread with &c.: as jalākīrṇa, mēghākīrṇa, sainyākīrṇa, vṛkṣākīrṇa, nakṣatrākīrṇa &c. endlessly.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण).—a Crowded; covered with.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण).—p. p.

1) Scattered or spread over.

2) Filled or overspread with, crowded, full of, abounding in; जनाकीर्णं मन्ये हुतवहपरीतं गृहमिव (janākīrṇaṃ manye hutavahaparītaṃ gṛhamiva) Ś.5.1; आकीर्णमृषिपत्नीना- मुटजद्वाररोधिभिः (ākīrṇamṛṣipatnīnā- muṭajadvārarodhibhiḥ) R.1.5; ग्राहाकीर्णं सरः (grāhākīrṇaṃ saraḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.375; (śvabhiḥ bhikṣukaiḥ) आकीर्णम् (ākīrṇam) Manusmṛti 6.51.

-rṇam A crowd; V.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण).—mfn.

(-rṇaḥ-rṇā-rṇaṃ) 1. Filled, overspread. 2. Crowded. 3. Impervious. 4. Spread. 5. Scattered. E. āṅ, kṝ to scatter, part. affix kta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण).—[adjective] scattered, spread; filled with, surrounded by ([instrumental] or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण):—[=ā-kīrṇa] a See ā-√kṝ.

2) [=ā-kīrṇa] [from ā-kṝ] b mfn. scattered, [Hitopadeśa]

3) [v.s. ...] overspread, filled, crowded, surrounded, [Manu-smṛti vi, 51; Mahābhārata] etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण):—[ā-kīrṇa] (ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) a. Filled, crowded.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Āinna.

[Sanskrit to German]

Akirna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ākīrṇa (आकीर्ण) [Also spelled akirn]:—(a) crowded; full of diffusion; diffused; scattered.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ākīrṇa (ಆಕೀರ್ಣ):—

1) [adjective] spread all around; scattered.

2) [adjective] filled or crowded.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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