Akhu, Ākhu: 18 definitions


Akhu means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Ākhu (आखु) is a Sanskrit word referring to a “rat”. According to the Manusmṛti XII.62, one is reborn as a rat when commiting the sin of stealing grain. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti.

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Ākhu (आखु) refers to the animal “Soft furred field rat” (Millardia meltada).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Ākhu] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Ākhu (आखु) refers to the Metad [Soft-furred field rat] (Millardia Meltada), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Ākhu (आखु) refers to “rats” (and bandicoots) , according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā seems to consider rat poison as the next powerful one, seriously affecting human beings. The rat is popularly known as Ākhu, Mūṣika and Unduru. Amarakosa (II.5.12) enlists the various synonyms of rat. Kāśyapa, however uses only two names of the rat—Ākhu and Mūṣika. He gives antidotes for the 16 varieties of rats. The author follows this up with certain general instructions in tackling poisons.

The sixteen varieties of Ākhu (rats) are:

  1. Kulacandra,
  2. Viṣaghātī,
  3. Bhayānaka,
  4. Karaghna,
  5. Krūra,
  6. Ugra,
  7. Bhṛtaka,
  8. Tīkṣṇa,
  9. Meghanāda,
  10. Kumuda,
  11. Siṃha,
  12. Ekacārin,
  13. Sunāsa,
  14. Sudanta,
  15. Sulabha,
  16. Sugarbha.
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Ākhu (आखु) refers to “rats”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The years of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) take their names from the several Nakṣatras in which he reappears after his conjunction with the Sun; and these names are identical with the names of the lunar months. [...] In the Mārgaśīrṣa year of Jupiter, there will be drought and crops will be injuired by animals, by rats [i.e., ākhu], by grass hoppers and by birds; there will be disease in the land and rulers will be at strife even with their friends”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Ākhu (आखु) refers to “mice”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225-226).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then follows the image of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, which matches the conception of Kālarātri in the passage from the Mahābhārata:] [...] she bore the coquettish apparel of a woman going out to meet Mahākāla at night, with a vine-like body furnished with a raiment reddened with saffron-dye, with a face with red eyes, whose brows were furrowed into a frown, whose lip was crimsoned with betel that was blood, whose cheeks were reddened by the light shed from ear-ornaments of pomegranate flowers, with a forehead on which there was a tilaka dot of vermillion made by a Śabara beauty, covered by a magnificent gold turban. She was worshipped by goats... mice (ākhu)... antelope and black serpents... She was praised on all sides by flocks of old crows; [...]”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ākhu : (m.) a rat; mouse.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ākhu, (Vedic ākhu, fr. ā + khan, lit. the digger in, i. e. a mole; but given as rat or mouse by Halāyudha) a mouse or rat Pgdp 10. (Page 94)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ākhu (आखु).—m S A rat or mouse.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ākhu (आखु).—[ākhanatītyākhuḥ, ākhan kuḥ ḍicca Uṇādi-sūtra 1.33]

1) A mouse, rat, mole; आखुं चिदेव देव सोम (ākhuṃ cideva deva soma) Ṛgveda 9.67.3. अत्तुं वाञ्छति शाम्भवो गणपतेराखुं क्षुधार्तः फणी (attuṃ vāñchati śāmbhavo gaṇapaterākhuṃ kṣudhārtaḥ phaṇī) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.159.

2) A thief.

3) A hog. cf. पोत्रिमूषिखयोराखुः (potrimūṣikhayorākhuḥ) Nm.

4) A spade.

5) A miser.; विभवे सति नैवात्ति न ददाति जुहोति न । तमाहुराखुम् (vibhave sati naivātti na dadāti juhoti na | tamāhurākhum).

6) The grass Lipeocercis Serrata (devatāḍa).

Derivable forms: ākhuḥ (आखुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākhu (आखु).—m.

(-khuḥ) 1. A rat, a mouse. 2. A hog. 3. A thief. 4. A sort of tree: see devatāḍa. E. āṅ, khan to dig, and ku Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākhu (आखु).—i. e. ā-khan + u, m. A rat, a mouse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākhu (आखु).—[masculine] mole, mouse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ākhu (आखु):—[=ā-khu] [from ā-kha] a m. a mole, [Ṛg-veda ix, 67, 30; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a mouse, rat

3) [v.s. ...] a hog, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a thief, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] the grass Lipeocercis Serrata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] f. a she-mole or she-mouse, [Pāṇini 4-1, 44 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

7) [=ā-khu] b See ā-kha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākhu (आखु):—[ā-khu] (khuḥ) 2. m. A rat or mouse.

[Sanskrit to German]

Akhu in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ākhu (ಆಖು):—[noun] the common mouse; a house rat.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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