Upakara, Upakāra: 18 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Upakara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Upkar.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Upakara is assistance.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Upakara (उपकर) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Upakara).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Upakāra (उपकार) refers to “service”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLII.—Accordingly, “[...] furthermore, great wisdom has as its nature the relinquishment (parityāga), the rejection (parivarjana) of dharmas; great loving-kindness and great compassion have as their nature pity for (anukampā) and service (upakāra) to beings. This pity and service are loved by all beings; that is why they call them great loving-kindness and great compassion of the Buddha”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Upakara.—(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 106, note 5), cf. nikara and upaskara. Note: upakara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Upakara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

upakāra : (m.) help; support; favour.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Upakāra, (fr. upa + kṛ, cp. upakaraṇa) service, help, benefit, obligation, favour D. III, 187 sq.; VvA. 68; PvA. 8, 18 (°āya hoti is good for); Sdhp. 283, 447, 530. ‹-› bahûpakāra (adj.) of great help, very serviceable or helpful S. IV, 295; PvA. 114. upakāraṃ karoti to do a favour, to oblige PvA. 42, 88, 159 (kata); katûpakāra one to whom a service has been rendered PvA. 116.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upakāra (उपकार).—m (S) A favor; a kindness; an obligation; a benefit conferred. 2 Benefit, advantage, good. u0 ṭhēvaṇēṃ g. of o. To keep or retain a favor, i. e. not to repay it. u0 bāḷagaṇēṃ-mānaṇēṃ-na visaraṇēṃ To preserve a grateful remembrance of a favor. Ex. tēla āṇuni dyāvēṃ gharā || tumacyā upakārāṃ na visarūṃ || upakārānīṃ bāndhaṇēṃ To lay under obligations. upa- kārānnī māraṇēṃ To kill with kindnesses.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upakāra (उपकार).—m A favour; obligation; benefit.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—1 Service, help, assistance, favour, kindness, obligation (opp. apakāra); अशक्यो द्रव्यपदार्थिकेन द्रव्यस्य गुणकृत उपकारः प्रतिज्ञातुम् (aśakyo dravyapadārthikena dravyasya guṇakṛta upakāraḥ pratijñātum) Mahābhārata on P.II.1.1. उपकारापकारौ हि लक्ष्यं लक्षणमेतयोः (upakārāpakārau hi lakṣyaṃ lakṣaṇametayoḥ) Śi.2.37; शाम्येत्प्रत्यपकारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः (śāmyetpratyapakāreṇa nopakāreṇa durjanaḥ) Ku.2.4,3.73; Y.3.284; Pt.1.22; उपकारे वृत् (upakāre vṛt) to be of service or useful (to another);

2) Preparation.

3) Ornament, decoration.

4) Particularly, flowers, garlands &c. suspended at gate-ways as embellishments on festive occasions.

-rī 1 A royal tent, palace.

2) Caravansera.

Derivable forms: upakāraḥ (उपकारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Upakara (उपकर).—adj. (and subst. m.?; to Sanskrit upa-kṛ), bene- ficent: Bodhisattvabhūmi 218.1 vāg upakarā; 218.6, 16 upakarāṃ (in 16 text °kārāṃ, erroneously) vācam; Śakrapraśnasūtra, Waldschmidt, Kl. Sanskrit Texte 4,113.2—4 upakaras tvaṃ tāta pañcaśikhāsmāka(m u)pakaraś ca yo hi nāma…; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.287.13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Favour, protection, help, assistance. 2. Use, advantage. 3. A flower, &c. full blown. 4. Garlands suspended, at gateways, as an embellishment on festivals. E. upa near or over, kṛ to make, ghañ aff. [Pagĕ5-b+ 60]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—i. e. upa-kṛ + a, m. 1. Benefitting, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 265 (in order to benefit them). 2. Favour, Mahābhārata 3, 15024. 3. Assistance, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 11, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—[masculine] service, assistance, favour.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upakāra (उपकार):—[=upa-kāra] a etc. See upa- √1. kṛ.

2) [=upa-kāra] [from upa-kṛ] b m. help, assistance, benefit, service, favour

3) [v.s. ...] use, advantage, [Mahābhārata; Yājñavalkya; Hitopadeśa; Vikramorvaśī] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (upakāre-√vṛt, to be of service to another, [Rāmāyaṇa])

5) [v.s. ...] preparation, ornament, decoration, embellishment (as garlands suspended at gateways on festivals, flowers etc.), [Suśruta; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार):—[upa-kāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Favor, assistance; use; flower; garland.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Upakāra (उपकार):—(von kar, karoti mit upa)

1) m. a) Diensterweisung, Dienst, Gefallen [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 4, 240.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 253.] Gegens. apakāra [Pañcatantra I, 27.] pīḍana [III, 103.] eteṣāmupakārāt um ihnen einen Dienst zu erweisen [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 265.] upakāro mahāṃstāta kṛto yaṃ mama khecaraiḥ [Mahābhārata 3, 15024. 1054. 13, 554.] [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 3, 20. 7, 20. 27, 18. 20. 34, 26. 56, 18.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 284.] [Vikramorvaśī 11, 11.] [Pañcatantra II, 35] [?(pl.). 50. 113, 7. 24. Hitopadeśa II, 95. Kathāsaritsāgara 13, 36. 22, 73. Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 240. Vetālapañcaviṃśati 37, 14.] upakārakṛtaṃ vīro na ca vismartumarhati [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 35, 4.] upakāragṛhītena śatruṇā śatrumuddharet [Cāṇakya 22.] upakāre vart sich in dem Falle befinden, Jmd einen Dienst erweisen zu können, erwiesen zu haben [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 75, 40. 4, 31, 34.] ādhiḥ sopakāraḥ ein Pfand, das man benutzen darf, [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 143.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 59.] sopakāraka dem ein Dienst erwiesen worden ist [Pañcatantra 239, 4.] Am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā: kṛtopakārā [Kumārasaṃbhava 3, 73.] — b) Zurüstung, Ausschmückung: puṃnāganāgakaravīrakṛtopakāre . tasmiṃgṛhe [Suśruta 2, 485, 15.] ausgestreute Blumen u.s.w. [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] Vgl. upacāra [6.] —

2) f. rī = upakāryā [Dvirūpakoṣa] bei [Bharata] zu [Amarakoṣa 2, 2, 9.] [Śabdakalpadruma] Vgl. upakārikā und upakāryā .

--- OR ---

Upakāra (उपकार):—

1) a) paropakāra [Spr. 1730. fgg.] apakāriṇaṃ pratyupakārapratipādanāt [Sāhityadarpana 12, 16.] das Beitragen zu Etwas [SARVADARŚANAS. 10, 11. 11, 5. fgg.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Upakāra (उपकार):——

1) m. (adj. Comp. f. ā) — a) Diensterweisung , Dienst , Gefallen , das Beitragen zu etwas , von Nutzen Sein [The Sankhya Philosophy 3,68,5,3.] re vart Jmd einen Dienst erweisen können , — erwiesen haben. — b) Zurüstung , Ausschmückung.

2) *f. ī = upakārya 2)a).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Upakara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Upakara (उपकर) [Also spelled upkar]:—(nm) a cess.

2) Upakāra (उपकार) [Also spelled upkaar]:—(nm) beneficence, benefaction; good; —[mānanā] to feel grateful, to express gratitude.

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