Upakara, Upakāra: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Upakara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Upkar.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Upakara is assistance.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Upakara (उपकर) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Upakara).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Upakāra (उपकार) refers to “service”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLII.—Accordingly, “[...] furthermore, great wisdom has as its nature the relinquishment (parityāga), the rejection (parivarjana) of dharmas; great loving-kindness and great compassion have as their nature pity for (anukampā) and service (upakāra) to beings. This pity and service are loved by all beings; that is why they call them great loving-kindness and great compassion of the Buddha”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Upakāra (उपकार) refers to “benefit”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the provision of the benefit (upakārakāritvam) of those (teṣām) being the rain-clouds, etc. (parjanyādyāḥ) that are protected by the doctrine (dharmarakṣitāḥ)]—The rain clouds, wind, sun, moon, earth, ocean and Indra—those, which are protected by the doctrine, are of service to the whole world. I think, that doctrine, whose progress is unimpeded, has arisen for the benefit of the world of living souls in the guise of world-protectors”.

2) Upakāra (उपकार) refers to “being of service (to the whole world)”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “The rain clouds, wind, sun, moon, earth, ocean and Indra—those, which are protected by the doctrine, are of service to the whole world (viśva-upakāra). I think, that doctrine, whose progress is unimpeded, has arisen for the benefit of the world of living souls in the guise of world-protectors”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Upakara.—(Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 106, note 5), cf. nikara and upaskara. Note: upakara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Upakara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

upakāra : (m.) help; support; favour.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Upakāra, (fr. upa + kṛ, cp. upakaraṇa) service, help, benefit, obligation, favour D. III, 187 sq.; VvA. 68; PvA. 8, 18 (°āya hoti is good for); Sdhp. 283, 447, 530. ‹-› bahûpakāra (adj.) of great help, very serviceable or helpful S. IV, 295; PvA. 114. upakāraṃ karoti to do a favour, to oblige PvA. 42, 88, 159 (kata); katûpakāra one to whom a service has been rendered PvA. 116.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upakāra (उपकार).—m (S) A favor; a kindness; an obligation; a benefit conferred. 2 Benefit, advantage, good. u0 ṭhēvaṇēṃ g. of o. To keep or retain a favor, i. e. not to repay it. u0 bāḷagaṇēṃ-mānaṇēṃ-na visaraṇēṃ To preserve a grateful remembrance of a favor. Ex. tēla āṇuni dyāvēṃ gharā || tumacyā upakārāṃ na visarūṃ || upakārānīṃ bāndhaṇēṃ To lay under obligations. upa- kārānnī māraṇēṃ To kill with kindnesses.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upakāra (उपकार).—m A favour; obligation; benefit.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—1 Service, help, assistance, favour, kindness, obligation (opp. apakāra); अशक्यो द्रव्यपदार्थिकेन द्रव्यस्य गुणकृत उपकारः प्रतिज्ञातुम् (aśakyo dravyapadārthikena dravyasya guṇakṛta upakāraḥ pratijñātum) Mahābhārata on P.II.1.1. उपकारापकारौ हि लक्ष्यं लक्षणमेतयोः (upakārāpakārau hi lakṣyaṃ lakṣaṇametayoḥ) Śiśupālavadha 2.37; शाम्येत्प्रत्यपकारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः (śāmyetpratyapakāreṇa nopakāreṇa durjanaḥ) Kumārasambhava 2.4,3.73; Y.3.284; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.22; उपकारे वृत् (upakāre vṛt) to be of service or useful (to another);

2) Preparation.

3) Ornament, decoration.

4) Particularly, flowers, garlands &c. suspended at gate-ways as embellishments on festive occasions.

-rī 1 A royal tent, palace.

2) Caravansera.

Derivable forms: upakāraḥ (उपकारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Upakara (उपकर).—adj. (and subst. m.?; to Sanskrit upa-kṛ), bene- ficent: Bodhisattvabhūmi 218.1 vāg upakarā; 218.6, 16 upakarāṃ (in 16 text °kārāṃ, erroneously) vācam; Śakrapraśnasūtra, Waldschmidt, Kl. Sanskrit Texte 4,113.2—4 upakaras tvaṃ tāta pañcaśikhāsmāka(m u)pakaraś ca yo hi nāma…; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.287.13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Favour, protection, help, assistance. 2. Use, advantage. 3. A flower, &c. full blown. 4. Garlands suspended, at gateways, as an embellishment on festivals. E. upa near or over, kṛ to make, ghañ aff. [Pagĕ5-b+ 60]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—i. e. upa-kṛ + a, m. 1. Benefitting, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 265 (in order to benefit them). 2. Favour, Mahābhārata 3, 15024. 3. Assistance, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 11, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार).—[masculine] service, assistance, favour.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upakāra (उपकार):—[=upa-kāra] a etc. See upa- √1. kṛ.

2) [=upa-kāra] [from upa-kṛ] b m. help, assistance, benefit, service, favour

3) [v.s. ...] use, advantage, [Mahābhārata; Yājñavalkya; Hitopadeśa; Vikramorvaśī] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (upakāre-√vṛt, to be of service to another, [Rāmāyaṇa])

5) [v.s. ...] preparation, ornament, decoration, embellishment (as garlands suspended at gateways on festivals, flowers etc.), [Suśruta; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakāra (उपकार):—[upa-kāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Favor, assistance; use; flower; garland.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Upakāra (उपकार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Uvayāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Upakara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Upakara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Upakara (उपकर) [Also spelled upkar]:—(nm) a cess.

2) Upakāra (उपकार) [Also spelled upkaar]:—(nm) beneficence, benefaction; good; —[mānanā] to feel grateful, to express gratitude.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Upakara (ಉಪಕರ):—[noun] an auxiliary tax levied along with or on the main one; cess.

--- OR ---

Upakāra (ಉಪಕಾರ):—

1) [noun] a help; service, kindness done for or received (another) from; the act of doing good or helping others, esp. by giving money for charitable purposes; benefaction.

2) [noun] he who extends help, service, kindness, etc to another (esp. in need).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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