Upagraha, Upagrāha: 9 definitions

Introduction

Upagraha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Upagraha (उपग्रह).—A term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च (upagrahapratiṣedhaśca) on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words

उपग्रहस्य आत्मने-पदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थः ।
(upagrahasya ātmane-padasaṃjñāyā ityarthaḥ |)

The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां (suptiṅupagrahaliṅganarāṇāṃ) quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् (vyatyayo bahulam) P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes

लादेश-व्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मैपदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते ।
(lādeśa-vyaṅgyaṃ svārthatvādi | iha tatpratītinimitte parasmaipadātmanepade upagrahaśabdena lakṣaṇayocyete |)

The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः (upagṛhyate samīpe paṭhyate iti upagrahaḥ). The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् (cūrṇādīnyaprāṇyupagrahāt) instead of चूर्णादी-न्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः (cūrṇādī-nyaprāṇiṣaṣṭhyāḥ) and made the remark तत्रेपग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते (tatrepagraha iti ṣaṣṭhyantameva pūrvācāryopacāreṇa gṛhyate). This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह (upagraha) meant षष्ठ्यन्त (ṣaṣṭhyanta) i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी (ṣaṣṭhī)' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् (tiṅ) affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त (ṣaṣṭhyanta)' of the word 'उपग्रह (upagraha)' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद (pada)' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी (ṣaṣṭhī)' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह (upagraha)' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Upagraha (उपग्रह, “assist”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.17.—The functions of the media of motion (dharma) and rest (adharma) are to assist (upagraha) motion (gati) and rest respectively. What is the meaning of support (upagraha)? It means to support or to assist.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upagraha (उपग्रह).—m S The ascending or the descending node. See rāhu & kētu. 2 A subordinate planet, a satellite: also a secondary or minor planet, an asteroid.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upagraha (उपग्रह).—m A secondary or minor planet, an asteroid. A satellite.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upagraha (उपग्रह).—1 Confinement, seizure.

2) Defeat, frustration; अपि च विहिते मत्कृत्यानां निकाममुपग्रहे (api ca vihite matkṛtyānāṃ nikāmamupagrahe) Mu.4.2.

3) A prisoner.

4) Joining, addition.

5) (a) Favour, encouragement, assistance, conciliation; सोपग्रहम् (sopagraham) K.156. परविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्षोपग्रहः (paraviṣaye kṛtyākṛtyapakṣopagrahaḥ) | Kau. A.1. अमित्रोपग्रहं चास्य ते कुर्युः क्षिप्रमापदि (amitropagrahaṃ cāsya te kuryuḥ kṣipramāpadi) Mb.12.96.14. (b) Favourableness, kindness, complacence; सोपग्रहं (sopagrahaṃ) K.264.

6) Use.

7) A kind of peace purchased by giving over every thing; cf. क्रियते प्राणरक्षार्थं सर्वदानादुपग्रहः (kriyate prāṇarakṣārthaṃ sarvadānādupagrahaḥ) H.4.121.

8) The voice or pada of a verb; सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां (suptiṅupagrahaliṅganarāṇāṃ) Mahābhārata III.1.85;1.4; and 2.127.

9) A pile or heap of kuśa grass.

1) The presiding spirit or cause which directs a planet's motion.

11) A minor planet राहु, केतु (rāhu, ketu) &c.), a secondary heavenly body, such as a comet, meteor.

Derivable forms: upagrahaḥ (उपग्रहः).

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Upagrāha (उपग्राह).—

1) Making a present.

2) A present; उच्चावचानुपग्राहान् राजभिः प्रापितान् बहून् (uccāvacānupagrāhān rājabhiḥ prāpitān bahūn) Mb.2.

Derivable forms: upagrāhaḥ (उपग्राहः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upagraha (उपग्रह).—m.

(-haḥ) 1. A prisoner, a man or animal in confinement. 2. Favour, encouragement. 3. Assistance. 4. Peace purchased by the cession of every thing. 5. Seizure. 6. The presiding spirit or cause directing a planet’s motion. 7. A minor planet or any heavenly body of a secondary kind, as a comet, a meteor, a falling star, &c. 8. A heap of kusa grass. E. upa near, grah to take, ap affix or graha a planet, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upagrāha (उपग्राह).—i. e. upa-grah + a, m. A present, Mahābhārata 2, 1898.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upagraha (उपग्रह).—[masculine] taking possession of, annexing, winning over.

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Upagrāha (उपग्राह).—[masculine] gift, present.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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