Upagraha, Upagrāha: 9 definitions
Upagraha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Upagraha (उपग्रह).—A term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च (upagrahapratiṣedhaśca) on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words
उपग्रहस्य आत्मने-पदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थः ।
(upagrahasya ātmane-padasaṃjñāyā ityarthaḥ |)
The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां (suptiṅupagrahaliṅganarāṇāṃ) quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् (vyatyayo bahulam) P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes
लादेश-व्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मैपदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते ।
(lādeśa-vyaṅgyaṃ svārthatvādi | iha tatpratītinimitte parasmaipadātmanepade upagrahaśabdena lakṣaṇayocyete |)
The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः (upagṛhyate samīpe paṭhyate iti upagrahaḥ). The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् (cūrṇādīnyaprāṇyupagrahāt) instead of चूर्णादी-न्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः (cūrṇādī-nyaprāṇiṣaṣṭhyāḥ) and made the remark तत्रेपग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते (tatrepagraha iti ṣaṣṭhyantameva pūrvācāryopacāreṇa gṛhyate). This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह (upagraha) meant षष्ठ्यन्त (ṣaṣṭhyanta) i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी (ṣaṣṭhī)' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् (tiṅ) affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त (ṣaṣṭhyanta)' of the word 'उपग्रह (upagraha)' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद (pada)' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी (ṣaṣṭhī)' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह (upagraha)' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Upagraha (उपग्रह, “assist”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.17.—The functions of the media of motion (dharma) and rest (adharma) are to assist (upagraha) motion (gati) and rest respectively. What is the meaning of support (upagraha)? It means to support or to assist.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
upagraha (उपग्रह).—m S The ascending or the descending node. See rāhu & kētu. 2 A subordinate planet, a satellite: also a secondary or minor planet, an asteroid.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
upagraha (उपग्रह).—m A secondary or minor planet, an asteroid. A satellite.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Upagraha (उपग्रह).—1 Confinement, seizure.
2) Defeat, frustration; अपि च विहिते मत्कृत्यानां निकाममुपग्रहे (api ca vihite matkṛtyānāṃ nikāmamupagrahe) Mu.4.2.
3) A prisoner.
4) Joining, addition.
5) (a) Favour, encouragement, assistance, conciliation; सोपग्रहम् (sopagraham) K.156. परविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्षोपग्रहः (paraviṣaye kṛtyākṛtyapakṣopagrahaḥ) | Kau. A.1. अमित्रोपग्रहं चास्य ते कुर्युः क्षिप्रमापदि (amitropagrahaṃ cāsya te kuryuḥ kṣipramāpadi) Mb.12.96.14. (b) Favourableness, kindness, complacence; सोपग्रहं (sopagrahaṃ) K.264.
7) A kind of peace purchased by giving over every thing; cf. क्रियते प्राणरक्षार्थं सर्वदानादुपग्रहः (kriyate prāṇarakṣārthaṃ sarvadānādupagrahaḥ) H.4.121.
8) The voice or pada of a verb; सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां (suptiṅupagrahaliṅganarāṇāṃ) Mahābhārata III.1.85;1.4; and 2.127.
9) A pile or heap of kuśa grass.
1) The presiding spirit or cause which directs a planet's motion.
11) A minor planet राहु, केतु (rāhu, ketu) &c.), a secondary heavenly body, such as a comet, meteor.
Derivable forms: upagrahaḥ (उपग्रहः).
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1) Making a present.
2) A present; उच्चावचानुपग्राहान् राजभिः प्रापितान् बहून् (uccāvacānupagrāhān rājabhiḥ prāpitān bahūn) Mb.2.
Derivable forms: upagrāhaḥ (उपग्राहः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-haḥ) 1. A prisoner, a man or animal in confinement. 2. Favour, encouragement. 3. Assistance. 4. Peace purchased by the cession of every thing. 5. Seizure. 6. The presiding spirit or cause directing a planet’s motion. 7. A minor planet or any heavenly body of a secondary kind, as a comet, a meteor, a falling star, &c. 8. A heap of kusa grass. E. upa near, grah to take, ap affix or graha a planet, &c.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upagrāha (उपग्राह).—i. e. upa-grah + a, m. A present, Mahābhārata 2, 1898.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upagraha (उपग्रह).—[masculine] taking possession of, annexing, winning over.
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Upagrāha (उपग्राह).—[masculine] gift, present.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Upagraha (उपग्रह):—[=upa-graha] [from upa-grah] 1. upa-graha m. (for 2. See sub voce) seizure, confinement, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
2) [v.s. ...] a prisoner, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] a handful (of Kuśa grass), [Kātyāyana]
4) [v.s. ...] adding, addition (of a sound) [commentator or commentary] on [Pāṇini]
5) [v.s. ...] an e used as Nidhana (q.v.) at the end of a Sāman, [Lāṭyāyana vii, 8, 11]
6) [v.s. ...] alteration, change, [Saṃhitā-upaniṣad-brāhmaṇa ii, 3]
7) [v.s. ...] propitiation, conciliation, coaxing, [Daśarūpa]
8) [v.s. ...] a kind of Sandhi or peace (purchased by the cession of everything), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Hitopadeśa]
9) [v.s. ...] the Pada or voice of a verb [commentator or commentary] on [Pāṇini]
10) [v.s. ...] a kind of demon causing diseases (supposed to preside over the planets), [Harivaṃśa 9562.]
11) Upagrāha (उपग्राह):—[=upa-grāha] [from upa-grah] m. a complimentary gift, present to a superior, [Mahābhārata ii, 1898.]
12) Upagraha (उपग्रह):—[=upa-graha] 2. upa-graha m. ([from] graha with upa implying inferiority), a minor planet or any heavenly body of a secondary kind, a comet, meteor, falling star etc., [Mahābhārata etc.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Search found 3 books and stories containing Upagraha, Upagrāha, Upa-graha, Upa-grāha; (plurals include: Upagrahas, Upagrāhas, grahas, grāhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 3 - The Character of Equal, Inferior and Superior Kings < [Book 7 - The End of the Six-fold Policy]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 30 - Skanda Installed as the Commander-in-Chief < [Section 2 - Kaumārikā-khaṇḍa]