Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 2.1.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वम॑ग्ने॒ राजा॒ वरु॑णो धृ॒तव्र॑त॒स्त्वं मि॒त्रो भ॑वसि द॒स्म ईड्य॑: । त्वम॑र्य॒मा सत्प॑ति॒र्यस्य॑ स॒म्भुज॒द त्वमंशो॑ वि॒दथे॑ देव भाज॒युः ॥
त्वमग्ने राजा वरुणो धृतव्रतस्त्वं मित्रो भवसि दस्म ईड्यः । त्वमर्यमा सत्पतिर्यस्य सम्भुजं त्वमंशो विदथे देव भाजयुः ॥
tvam agne rājā varuṇo dhṛtavratas tvam mitro bhavasi dasma īḍyaḥ | tvam aryamā satpatir yasya sambhujaṃ tvam aṃśo vidathe deva bhājayuḥ ||

English translation:

“You, Agni, are the royal Varuṇa, observant of holy vows; you are the adorable Mitra, the destroyer (of foes); you are Aryaman, the protector of the virtuous, whose (liberality) is enjoyed by all; you are a portion (of the sun); be the distributor (of good things), divine (Agni), at our sacrifice.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Whose liberality: liberality is said to be the characteristic of Aryaman, dātṛtvam caryamṇo liṅgam; you are a portion of the sun: tvam aṃśaḥ = forms of the sun, or the Āditya, named aṃśa; You, Agni, are Rudra: tvam rudro asuro maho divaḥ: asura = śatrūṇām nirasitā, the expeller of enemies;

Divas = from heaven; or, the giver of strength, asur, balam, tasya datā āditya rūpa: a form of āditya, or an āditya


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): āṅgirasaḥ śaunahotro bhārgavo gṛtsamadaḥ [āṅgirasa śaunahotra bhārgava gṛtsamada];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वम् । अ॒ग्ने॒ । राजा॑ । वरु॑णः । धृ॒तऽव्र॑तः । त्वम् । मि॒त्रः । भ॒व॒सि॒ । द॒स्मः । ईड्यः॑ । त्वम् । अ॒र्य॒मा । सत्ऽप॑तिः । यस्य॑ । स॒म्ऽभुज॑म् । त्वम् । अंशः॑ । वि॒दथे॑ । दे॒व॒ । भा॒ज॒युः ॥
त्वम् । अग्ने । राजा । वरुणः । धृतव्रतः । त्वम् । मित्रः । भवसि । दस्मः । ईड्यः । त्वम् । अर्यमा । सत्पतिः । यस्य । सम्भुजम् । त्वम् । अंशः । विदथे । देव । भाजयुः ॥
tvam | agne | rājā | varuṇaḥ | dhṛta-vrataḥ | tvam | mitraḥ | bhavasi | dasmaḥ | īḍyaḥ | tvam | aryamā | sat-patiḥ | yasya | sam-bhujam | tvam | aṃśaḥ | vidathe | deva | bhājayuḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.1.4 English analysis of grammar]

tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

rājā < rājan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“king; Kshatriya; rājan [word]; best; rājāvarta; Yakṣa.”

varuṇo < varuṇaḥ < varuṇa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

dhṛtavratas < dhṛta < dhṛ

[verb noun]

“keep; put; hold; assume; wear; take; promise; stay; exist; hold; begin; dip.”

dhṛtavratas < vrataḥ < vrata

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“vrata (vote); commandment; law; oath; command; rule; custom; vrata [word]; rule; behavior.”

tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


mitro < mitraḥ < mitra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friend; Mitra; mitra [word]; sun; ally.”

bhavasi < bhū

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

dasma < dasmaḥ < dasma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


īḍyaḥ < īḍ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“praise; invite; raise.”

tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


aryamā < aryaman

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Aryaman; aryaman [word]; sun.”

satpatir < sat


“good; good; real; existent; virtuous; sat [prefix]; real.”

satpatir < patiḥ < pati

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“husband; overlord; king; deity; īśvara; ruler; pati [word]; commanding officer; leader; owner; mayor; lord.”

yasya < yad

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

saṃbhujaṃ < saṃbhujam < sambhuj < √bhuj

[verb], singular, Aorist conj./subj.

tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


aṃśo < aṃśaḥ < aṃśa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“part; part; share; part; volume; parcel; part; Aṃśa; aṃśa [word]; fraction.”

vidathe < vidatha

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“meeting; wisdom; council.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

bhājayuḥ < bhājayu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

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