Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

न कस्यचित् कश्चिद् इह स्वभावाद् भवत्य् उदारो ऽभिमतः खलो वा ।
लोके गुरुत्वं विपरीततां वा स्व-चेष्टितान्य् एव नरं नयन्ति ॥ ४६ ॥

na kasyacit kaścid iha svabhāvād bhavaty udāro 'bhimataḥ khalo vā |
loke gurutvaṃ viparītatāṃ vā sva-ceṣṭitāny eva naraṃ nayanti || 46 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 2.46 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (2.46). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Kah, Kim, Cit, Iha, Udara, Abhimata, Khala, Loka, Gurutva, Viparitata, Sva, Svan, Eva, Nara, Nayanti, Nayat,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 2.46). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “na kasyacit kaścid iha svabhāvād bhavaty udāro 'bhimataḥ khalo
  • na -
  • na (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    na (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    na (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • kasya -
  • kas -> kasya (absolutive)
    [absolutive from √kas]
    ka (noun, masculine)
    [genitive single]
    ka (noun, neuter)
    [genitive single]
    kaḥ (pronoun, masculine)
    [genitive single]
    kim (pronoun, neuter)
    [genitive single]
  • cit -
  • cit (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single]
    cit (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single]
    cit (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • kaś -
  • kaḥ (indeclinable interrogative)
    [indeclinable interrogative]
    ka (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    kaḥ (pronoun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • cid -
  • cit (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single]
    cit (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single]
    cit (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • iha -
  • iha (indeclinable adverb)
    [indeclinable adverb]
    iha (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
  • svabhāvād -
  • Cannot analyse bhavaty*ud
  • udāro' -
  • udāra (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • abhimataḥ -
  • abhimata (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • khalo* -
  • khala (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • -
  • (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
    (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]
  • Line 2: “loke gurutvaṃ viparītatāṃ sva-ceṣṭitāny eva naraṃ nayanti
  • loke -
  • loka (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    lok (verb class 1)
    [present middle first single]
  • gurutvam -
  • gurutva (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
  • viparītatām -
  • viparītatā (noun, feminine)
    [accusative single]
  • -
  • (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
    (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]
  • sva -
  • sva (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    svan (noun, masculine)
    [compound]
    svan (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    sva (noun, masculine)
    [vocative single]
  • Cannot analyse ceṣṭitāny*ev
  • eva -
  • eva (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    eva (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    eva (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • naram -
  • nara (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    nara (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    narā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • nayanti -
  • nayantī (noun, feminine)
    [adverb], [vocative single]
    nayat (noun, neuter)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
    nay -> nayat (participle, neuter)
    [nominative plural from √nay class 1 verb], [vocative plural from √nay class 1 verb], [accusative plural from √nay class 1 verb]
    nay -> nayantī (participle, feminine)
    [vocative single from √nay class 1 verb]
    -> nayat (participle, neuter)
    [nominative plural from √ class 1 verb], [vocative plural from √ class 1 verb], [accusative plural from √ class 1 verb]
    -> nayantī (participle, feminine)
    [vocative single from √ class 1 verb]
    nay (verb class 1)
    [present active third plural]
    (verb class 1)
    [present active third plural]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 2.46

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 2.46 in Gujarati sript:
ન કસ્યચિત્ કશ્ચિદ્ ઇહ સ્વભાવાદ્ ભવત્ય્ ઉદારો ઽભિમતઃ ખલો વા ।
લોકે ગુરુત્વં વિપરીતતાં વા સ્વ-ચેષ્ટિતાન્ય્ એવ નરં નયન્તિ ॥ ૪૬ ॥

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: