Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

अव्यवसायिनम् अलसं दैव-परं सहसाच् च परिहीणम् ।
प्रमदेव हि वृद्ध-पतिं नेच्छत्य् अवगूहितुं लक्ष्मीः ॥ ४ ॥

avyavasāyinam alasaṃ daiva-paraṃ sahasāc ca parihīṇam |
pramadeva hi vṛddha-patiṃ necchaty avagūhituṃ lakṣmīḥ || 4 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 2.4 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (2.4). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Avyavasayin, Alas, Alasa, Daiva, Param, Para, Sahasa, Parihina, Pramad, Pramada, Iva, Vriddha, Pati, Lakshmi,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 2.4). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “avyavasāyinam alasaṃ daiva-paraṃ sahasāc ca parihīṇam
  • avyavasāyinam -
  • avyavasāyin (noun, masculine)
    [accusative single]
  • alasam -
  • alasa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    alasa (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    alasā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    alas (noun, masculine)
    [accusative single]
    las (verb class 1)
    [imperfect active first single]
  • daiva -
  • daiva (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    daiva (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • param -
  • param (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    para (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    para (noun, neuter)
    [nominative single], [accusative single]
  • sahasāc -
  • sahasa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [ablative single]
    sahasa (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [ablative single]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • parihīṇam -
  • parihīṇa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    parihīṇa (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    parihīṇā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • Line 2: “pramadeva hi vṛddha-patiṃ necchaty avagūhituṃ lakṣmīḥ
  • pramade -
  • pramada (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single], [locative single]
    pramada (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    pramad (noun, feminine)
    [instrumental single], [dative single]
    pramadā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single], [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
  • iva -
  • iva (indeclinable adverb)
    [indeclinable adverb]
    iva (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
  • hi -
  • hi (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
  • vṛddha -
  • vṛddha (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    vṛddha (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    vṛdh -> vṛddha (participle, masculine)
    [vocative single from √vṛdh class 1 verb]
    vṛdh -> vṛddha (participle, neuter)
    [vocative single from √vṛdh class 1 verb]
  • patim -
  • pati (noun, feminine)
    [accusative single]
    pati (noun, masculine)
    [accusative single]
  • Cannot analyse necchaty*av
  • avag -
  • vac (verb class 2)
    [imperfect active second single], [imperfect active third single]
  • ūhitum -
  • ūh -> ūhitum (infinitive)
    [infinitive from √ūh]
  • lakṣmīḥ -
  • lakṣmī (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single], [accusative plural]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 2.4

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 2.4 in Gujarati sript:
અવ્યવસાયિનમ્ અલસં દૈવ-પરં સહસાચ્ ચ પરિહીણમ્ ।
પ્રમદેવ હિ વૃદ્ધ-પતિં નેચ્છત્ય્ અવગૂહિતું લક્ષ્મીઃ ॥ ૪ ॥

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