Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

मर्तव्यम् इति यद् दुःखं पुरुषस्योपजायते ।
शक्यस् तेनानुमानेन परो ऽपि परिरक्षितुम् ॥ ६८ ॥

martavyam iti yad duḥkhaṃ puruṣasyopajāyate |
śakyas tenānumānena paro 'pi parirakṣitum || 68 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 1.68 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (1.68). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Martavya, Iti, Yat, Yad, Duhkham, Duhkha, Purusha, Upaja, Tad, Yushmad, Shakya, Tena, Uma, Parah, Para, Paru, Api, Pari, Akshit,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 1.68). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “martavyam iti yad duḥkhaṃ puruṣasyopajāyate
  • martavyam -
  • martavya (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    martavya (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    martavyā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    mṛ -> martavya (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √mṛ class 1 verb], [accusative single from √mṛ class 6 verb]
    mṛ -> martavya (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √mṛ class 1 verb], [accusative single from √mṛ class 1 verb], [nominative single from √mṛ class 6 verb], [accusative single from √mṛ class 6 verb]
  • iti -
  • iti (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    iti (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
  • yad -
  • yat (indeclinable relative)
    [indeclinable relative]
    yat (noun, masculine)
    [compound]
    yad (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single]
    yat (noun, neuter)
    [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
    i -> yat (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √i class 2 verb], [vocative single from √i class 2 verb], [accusative single from √i class 2 verb]
    yat (pronoun, neuter)
    [nominative single], [accusative single]
  • duḥkham -
  • duḥkham (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    duḥkha (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    duḥkha (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    duḥkhā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • puruṣasyo -
  • puruṣa (noun, masculine)
    [genitive single]
    puruṣa (noun, neuter)
    [genitive single]
  • upajāya -
  • upaja (noun, masculine)
    [dative single]
    upaja (noun, neuter)
    [dative single]
  • te -
  • ta (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    ta (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    tad (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [accusative dual]
    sa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural]
    (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [accusative dual]
    yuṣmad (pronoun, none)
    [dative single], [genitive single]
  • Line 2: “śakyas tenānumānena paro 'pi parirakṣitum
  • śakyas -
  • śakya (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    śak -> śakya (participle, masculine)
    [nominative single from √śak class 5 verb]
  • tenān -
  • tena (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural]
  • umān -
  • uma (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural]
  • ena -
  • a (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental single]
  • paro' -
  • paraḥ (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    para (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    paru (noun, masculine)
    [vocative single]
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    ap (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
  • parir -
  • pari (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    pari (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
  • akṣit -
  • akṣit (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single]
    akṣit (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • um -
  • u (noun, masculine)
    [accusative single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 1.68

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.68 in Gujarati sript:
મર્તવ્યમ્ ઇતિ યદ્ દુઃખં પુરુષસ્યોપજાયતે ।
શક્યસ્ તેનાનુમાનેન પરો ઽપિ પરિરક્ષિતુમ્ ॥ ૬૮ ॥

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