Iti, Īti: 8 definitions

Introduction

Iti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Iti, (ti) (indecl.) (Vedic iti, of pron. base *i, cp. Sk. itthaṃ thus, itthā here, there; Av. ipa so; Lat. ita & item thus. Cp. also P. ettha; lit. “here, there (now), then”) emphatic‹-› deictic particle “thus”. Occurs in both forms iti & ti, the former in higher style (poetry), the latter more familiar in conversational prose. The function of “iti” is expld. by the old Pāli C. in a conventional phrase, looking upon it more as a “filling” particle than trying to define its meaning viz.—itī ti padasandhi padasaṃsaggo padapāripurī akkharasamavāyo etc. ” Nd1 123 = Nd2 137. The same expln. also for iti’haṃ (see below IV.) — I. As deictic adv. “thus, in this way” (Vism. 423 iti = evaṃ) pointing to something either just mentioned or about to be mentioned: (a) referring to what precedes Sn. 253 (n’eso maman ti iti naṃ vijaññā), 805; It. 123 (ito devā... taṃ namassanti); Dh. 74 (iti bālassa saṅkappo thus think the —foolish), 286 (iti bālo vicinteti); Vv 7910 (= evaṃ VvA. 307); VvA. 5.—(b) referring to what follows D. I, 63 (iti paṭisañcikkhati); A. I, 205 (id.) — II. As emphatic part. pointing out or marking off a statement either as not one’s own (reported) or as the definite contents of (one’s own or other’s) thoughts. On the whole untranslatable (unless written as quotation marks), often only setting off a statement as emphatic, where we would either underline the word or phrase in question, or print it in italics, or put it in quot. marks (e.g. bālo ti vuccati Dh. 63 = bālo vuccati).—1. in direct speech (as given by writer or narrator), e.g. sādhu bhante Kassapa lābhataṃ esā janatā dassanāyā ti. Tena hi Sīha tvaṃ yeva Bhagavato ārocehī ti. Evaṃ bhante ti kho Sīho ... . D. I, 151.—2. in indirect speech: (a) as statement of a fact “so it is that” (cp. E. “viz. ”, Ger. “und zwar”), mostly untranslated Kh IV. (arahā ti pavuccati); J. I, 253 (tasmā pesanaka-corā t’eva vuccanti); III, 51 (tayo sahāyā ahesuṃ makkato sigālo uddo ti); PvA. 112 (aṅkuro pañca-sakaṭasatehi ... aññataro pi brāhmaṇo pañca-sakaṭasatehī ti dve janā sakata-sahassehi ... patipannā).—(b) as statement of a thought “like this”, “I think”, so, thus Sn. 61 (“saṅgo eso” iti ñatvā knowing “this is defilement”), 253 (“neso maman” ti iti naṃ vijaññā), 783 (“iti’han” ti), 1094 (etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ Nibbānaṃ iti naṃ brūmi I call this N.), 1130 (aparā pāraṃ gaccheyya tasmā “Parāyanaṃ” iti).—III, Peculiarities of spelling. (1) in combn. with other part. iti is elided & contracted as follows: icc’eva, t’eva, etc.—(2) final a, i, u preceding ti are lengthened to ā, ī, ū, e.g. mā evaṃ akatthā ti DhA. I, 7; kati dhurānī ti ibid; dve yeva dhurāni bhikkhū ti ibid. ‹-› IV. Combinations with other emphatic particles: + eva thus indeed, in truth, really; as icc’eva Pv. I, 119 (= evam eva PvA. 59); t’eva J. I, 253; Miin 114; tv’eva J. I, 203; II, 2. —iti kira thus now, perhaps, I should say D. I, 228, 229, 240. —iti kho thus, therefore D. I, 98, 103; III, 135. iti and so on (?), thus and such (similar cases) Nd1 13 = Nd2 420 A1. —iti ha thus surely, indeed Sn. 934, 1084 (see below under ītihītihaṃ; cp. SnA Index 669: itiha? and itikirā); It. 76; DA. I, 247, as iti haṃ at Sn. 783 (same expln. at Nd1 71 as for iti). —kin ti how J. II, 159.

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Īti, & Ītī (f.) (Sk. īti, of doubtful origin) ill, calamity, plague, distress, often combb. with & substituted for upaddava, cp. BSk. ītay’opadrava (attack of plague) Divy 119. ‹-› Sn. 51; J. I, 27 (V. 189); V, 401 = upaddava; Nd1 381; Nd2 48, 636 (+ upaddava = santāpa); Miln. 152, 274, 418. —anīti sound condition, health, safety A. IV, 238; Miln. 323. (Page 123)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of iti in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

iṭī (इटी).—f The stick which is struck in the game of iूdāṇḍū.

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iti (इति).—ind S A particle implying likeness (as, so, thus), or sameness of manner (thus, in this way), or conclusion (finis).

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īti (ईति).—f (S) pop. īta A common term for seven calamities, viz. drought, excessive rain, rats, locusts, parrots, legal oppression, foreign invasion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

iṭī (इटी).—f The stick which is struck in the game of iṭīdāṇḍū.

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iti (इति).—ind A particle implying likeness, conclusion, &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Iti (इति).—f. Going, moving.

Derivable forms: itiḥ (इतिः).

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Iti (इति).—ind.

1) this particle is most generally used to report the very words spoken or supposed to be spoken by some one, as represented by quotation marks in English. The speech reported may be (1) a single word used merely to express what the form of the word is, when it is used as it is (śabdasvarūpadyotaka); कूजन्तं रामरामेति मधुरं मधुराक्षरम् (kūjantaṃ rāmarāmeti madhuraṃ madhurākṣaram) Rāmarakṣā. अत एव गवित्याह (ata eva gavityāha) Bhartṛ.; (2) or a substantive, which must be put in the nominative case when its meaning is to be indicated (pratipadikārthadyotaka); चयस्त्विषामित्यवधारितं पुरा (cayastviṣāmityavadhāritaṃ purā) ... क्रमादमुं नारद इत्यबोधि सः (kramādamuṃ nārada ityabodhi saḥ) Śi.1.3.; अवैमि चैनामनघेति (avaimi caināmanagheti) R.14.4; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुः (dilīpa iti rājenduḥ) R.1.12; sometimes with acc. कैवर्तमिति यं प्राहुः (kaivartamiti yaṃ prāhuḥ) Ms.1.34.; Bg.6.2; (3) or a whole sentence when इति (iti) is merely used at the end of that sentence; (vākyārthadyotaka); ज्ञास्यसि कियद् भुजो मे रक्षति भौंर्वीकिणाङ्क इति (jñāsyasi kiyad bhujo me rakṣati bhauṃrvīkiṇāṅka iti) Ś.1.13; तयोर्मुनिकुमारयोरन्यतरः कथयति अक्षमालामुपयचितुमागतो- स्मीति (tayormunikumārayoranyataraḥ kathayati akṣamālāmupayacitumāgato- smīti) K.151.

2) Besides this general sense इति (iti) has the following senses:-(a) Cause, as expressed by 'because', 'since', 'on the ground that', in English; वैदेशिकोऽस्मीति पृच्छामि (vaideśiko'smīti pṛcchāmi) U.; पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् (purāṇamityeva na sādhu sarvam) M.1.2, oft. with किम् (kim) q. v. (b) Purpose or motive, as expressed by 'that', 'in order that' शरीरस्य विनाशो मा भूदिति मयेदमु- त्क्षिप्य समानीतम् (śarīrasya vināśo mā bhūditi mayedamu- tkṣipya samānītam) K.32; R.1.37. (c) Thus, to mark the conclusion (opp. atha); इति प्रथमोऽङ्कः (iti prathamo'ṅkaḥ) thus or here ends the first Act. (d) It is often used to include under one head a number of separate objects grouped together; पृथिव्यापस्तेजो वायुराकाशं कालो दिगात्मा मन इति द्रव्याणि (pṛthivyāpastejo vāyurākāśaṃ kālo digātmā mana iti dravyāṇi) T. S. (e) So, thus, in this manner; इत्युक्तवन्तं परिरभ्य दोर्भ्याम् (ityuktavantaṃ parirabhya dorbhyām) Ki.11.8. (f) Of this nature or description; गौरश्वः पुरुषो हस्तीति जातिः (gauraśvaḥ puruṣo hastīti jātiḥ). (g) As follows, to the following effect; रामाभिधानो हरिरित्युवाच (rāmābhidhāno harirityuvāca) R.13.1. (h) As for, in the capacity of, as regards, showing capacity or relation; पितेति स पूज्यः, अध्यापक इति निन्द्यः, शीघ्रमिति सुकरं, निभृतमिति चिन्तनीयं भवेत् (piteti sa pūjyaḥ, adhyāpaka iti nindyaḥ, śīghramiti sukaraṃ, nibhṛtamiti cintanīyaṃ bhavet) Ś.3. (i) It is often used with the name of an author to form an Avyayibhāva comp. इतिपाणिनि (itipāṇini) thus according to Pāṇini. (j) Illustration (usually with ādi); इन्दुरिन्दुरिव श्रीमानित्यादौ तदनन्वयः (indurinduriva śrīmānityādau tadananvayaḥ) Chandr.; गौः शु (gauḥ śu)श्चलो डित्थ इत्यादौ (ścalo ḍittha ityādau) K. P.2. (k) A quotation or an opinion accepted; इति पाणिनिः, इत्यापिशलिः, इत्यमरः, विश्वः (iti pāṇiniḥ, ityāpiśaliḥ, ityamaraḥ, viśvaḥ) &c. (l) It is often used by commentators after quoting a rule in the sense of 'according to such a rule'; शकि लिङ् च (śaki liṅ ca) (P.III.3.172) इति शक्यार्थे लिङ् (iti śakyārthe liṅ) Malli. Other senses mentioned are:(m) Manifestation. (n) Order. (o) Arrangement. (p) Identity. (q) Proximity. (r) Visibility. (s) Excess or superiority. (t) Requiring. (iti svarūpe sānnidhye vivakṣāniyame mate | hetau prakāra- pratyakṣaprakāśepyavadhāraṇe, ekamarthe samāptau ca || Hem.).

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Iti (इति).—

1) Knowledge.

2) Speed; Śabda Ch.

Derivable forms: itiḥ (इतिः).

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Īti (ईति).—a. [ī-ktic]

1) Produced, effected.

-tiḥ f. Plague, distress, a calamity of the season. The itis are usually said to be six :(1) excessive rain; (2) drought; (3) locusts; (4) rats; (5) parrots; and (6) foreign invasions; अतिवृष्टिरनाव्रष्टिः शलभा मूषकाः शुकाः । प्रत्यासन्नाश्च राजानः षडेता ईतयः स्मृताः (ativṛṣṭiranāvraṣṭiḥ śalabhā mūṣakāḥ śukāḥ | pratyāsannāśca rājānaḥ ṣaḍetā ītayaḥ smṛtāḥ) || (some read for the second line svacakraṃ paracakraṃ ca saptaitā ītayaḥ smṛtāḥ || making the total number seven); आशास्यमीतिविगमप्रभृति प्रजानाम् (āśāsyamītivigamaprabhṛti prajānām) M.5.2; Mv.7.42; निरातङ्का निरीतयः (nirātaṅkā nirītayaḥ) R.1.63.

2) An infectious disease.

3) Travelling (in a foreign country), sojourning (pravāsa).

4) An affray.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iti (इति).—ind. A particle implying, 1. Cause, (thus, therefore.) 2. Manifestation, (lo! behold!) 3. Somthing additional, (etcetera.) 4. The meanings of eva, (so, thus, even, in this manner.) 5. Conclusion, enough, (finis.) 6. Reference, (so says, this is, &c.) It also implies, 7. Order, arrangement, specific or distinctive, and 8. Identity (of this or similar form.) 9. A grammatical copulative, indicating a preceding sound or sense, to be again intened. E. i to go, ktic aff.

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Īti (ईति).—f.

(-tiḥ) 1. Calamity of season, as draught, excessive rain, rats, foreign invasion, &c. 2. Travelling in foreign countries, sojourning. 3. An affray. E. īṅ to go. affix ktin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iti (इति).— (probably a case of an original i + tya, see idam), adv. 1. Thus, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 237. 2. It is used in quoting words or thoughts of one’s self or some other: [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 129, tāṃ brūyād bhavatīti, He may address her thus (i. e. by the word), bhavati; Chr. 4, 15, avocam...bhīṣmaḥ śāntanavaḥ kanyā karatīti, I spoke thus: ‘Bhīṣma the son of Śāntanu robs the girls,’ i. e. I. rob, etc.; [Nala] 16, 9, tarkayām āsa bhaimīti, he thought thus: ‘ṣe is the daughter of Bhīma’; [Nala] 20, 14, na hi jānāmi bhaved evaṃ na veti, I do not know (thus): may it be so or not, i. e. I do not know if it be thus or not. Generally words expressing ‘to say,’ or ‘to think,’ are wanting, e. g. [Pañcatantra] 68, 25, akuto pi bhayam iti, ‘There is no danger from any quarter’ thus (thinking); [Nala] 14, 14, na tvāṃ vidyur janā iti, ‘People will not know thee’ thus (thinking). Sometimes is added kṛtvā or ha, e. g. Mahābhārata 1, 1522, sakheti kṛtvā, Thinking you are my friend, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 45. 3. It often follows a question without expressing a distinct meaning, e. g. [Hitopadeśa] 53, 18. 4. It is used to denote the conclusion of a book or chapter, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, end. 5. With preceding kim, Why, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 197, 22.

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Īti (ईति).—[ī + ti], f. Calamity, Mahābhārata 3, 11258.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Iti (इति).—1. [adverb] thus, so. It refers to something said or thought, which it follows (rarely precedes), and is often = with these words, here endeth (cf. atha), at this thought, as you know etc.; often not to be transl. at all. A [nominative] before iti may have the [meaning] of an [accusative] itīti, itīva, ityuta, ityeva, ityevam, iti ha sma & iti sma ha = iti alone. iti tāvat as much as, the same as (—°). iti kṛtvā for this reason. kimiti wherefore, why? or = iti kim.

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Iti (इति).—2. iti [feminine] going, pursuing.

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Iti (इति).—[feminine] going, pursuing.

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Īti (ईति).—[feminine] plague, distress.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Iti (इति):—[from i] 1. iti f. ityai ([dative case]) See √i above

2) [v.s. ...] (for 2. iti See s. v.)

3) 2. iti ind. ([from] pronominal base 3. i), in this manner, thus (in its original signification iti refers to something that has been said or thought, or lays stress on what precedes; in the Brāhmaṇas it is often equivalent to ‘as you know’, reminding the hearer or reader of certain customs, conditions, etc. supposed to be known to him). In quotations of every kind iti means that the preceding words are the very words which some person has or might have spoken, and placed thus at the end of a speech it serves the purpose of inverted commas (ity uktvā, having so said; iti kṛtvā, having so considered, having so decided). It may often have reference merely to what is passing in the mind e.g. bālo pi nāvamantavyo manuṣya iti bhūmipaḥ, a king, though a child, is not to be despised, saying to one’s self, ‘he is a mortal’, ([Gr. 928.]) In [dramatic language] iti tathā karoti means ‘after these words he acts thus.’

Sometimes iti is used to include under one head a number of separate objects aggregated together (e.g. ijyādhyayanadānāni tapaḥ satyaṃ kṣamā damaḥ alobha iti mārgo yam, ‘sacrificing, studying, liberality, penance, truth, patience, self-restraint, absence of desire’, this course of conduct, etc.)

iti is sometimes followed by evam, iva, or a demonstrative pronoun pleonastically (e.g. tām brūyād bhavatīty evam, her he may call ‘lady’, thus).

iti may form an adverbial compound with the name of an author (e.g. iti-pāṇini, thus according to Pāṇini). It may also express the act of calling attention (lo! behold!) It may have some other significations e.g. something additional (as in ityādi, et caetera), order, arrangement specific or distinctive, and identity. It is used by native commentators after quoting a rule to express ‘according to such a rule’ (e.g. anudāttaṅita ity ātmanepadam bhavati, according to the rule of Pāṇini, [ i, 3, 12], the Ātmane-pada takes place).

kim iti = kim, wherefore, why? (In the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ti occurs for iti; cf. Prākṛt ti and tti.)

4) ‘and so forth’ (iti coti ca, ‘thus and thus’, ‘in this and that manner’), [Mahābhārata]

5) Īti (ईति):—1. īti f. ([from] 4. ī?), plague, distress, any calamity of the season (as drought, excessive rain, swarm of rats, foreign invasion, etc.)

6) infectious disease, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta] etc.

7) an affray, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) travelling in foreign countries, sojourning, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) 2. īti ind. = iti, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 32, 65.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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