Vyayama, Vyāyāma: 13 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vyayama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Vyāyāma (व्यायाम) refers to “physical exercise”. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Vyāyāma (व्यायाम) refers to “gymnastics” or “exertion”, which is mentioned in verse 3.19, 4.18 and 15.24 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Having removed the surplus phlegm by pungent emetics and sternutatories etc., by light and rough food, (and) by gymnastics [viz., vyāyāma], massage, and treading [...]”.

Note (verse 3.19): Vyāyāma (“gymnastics”) (~rtsol-ba 2.10, 12, 13) has been omitted, unless bcag is a short form of rtsol-bcag (which corresponds to vyāyāma in 14.7); then āghāta (“treading”) would be absent.

Note (verse 15.24): The equivalent vyāyāna (“exertion”), the phrase zas rgod, is rather obscure and its translation by “move hither and thither in (seeking) food” only tentative. The ordinary meaning of rgod-pa is (“wild”); in Suvarṇaprabhāsasūtra p. 170.30 it corresponds to Sanskrit lola (“unsteady”). There is just an off chance that zas rgod is corrupt for rgod zas, in which case rgod alone would have to be equated to vyāyāma and zas interpreted as the object of za-ba.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vyāyāma (व्यायाम, “endeavour”) refers to one of the “eight practices for the abandoning of conditions” (saṃskāra) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 119). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., vyāyāma). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (V) next»] — Vyayama in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vyāyāma, =vāyāma DhsA. 146. (Page 654)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vyāyāma (व्यायाम).—m S Athletic exercise; as playing with heavy clubs, wielding a bow with a chain &c. &c.: also exercise (of the body) in general. 2 A fathom.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vyāyāma (व्यायाम).—m Exercise. A fathom.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vyāyāma (व्यायाम).—

1) Entending, stretching out; व्यायामसहमत्यर्थं तृणराजसमं महत् (vyāyāmasahamatyarthaṃ tṛṇarājasamaṃ mahat) Mb.4.4.6.

2) Exercise, gymnastic or athletic exercise; व्यायामयोगः (vyāyāmayogaḥ) Mb.12.59.53 (com. vyāyāmayogaḥ āyudhaprayogābhyāsaḥ); स्थाने शमवतां शक्त्या व्यायामे वृद्धिरङ्गिनाम् (sthāne śamavatāṃ śaktyā vyāyāme vṛddhiraṅginām) Śi.2.94.

3) Fatigue, labour; व्यायामेन च तेनास्य जज्ञे शिरसि वेदना (vyāyāmena ca tenāsya jajñe śirasi vedanā) Mb.3.297.2.

4) Effort, exertion.

5) Contention, struggle; व्यायामं मुष्टिभिः कृत्वा तलैरपि समा- गतैः (vyāyāmaṃ muṣṭibhiḥ kṛtvā talairapi samā- gataiḥ) Mb.3.167.4;5.138.25.

6) Business, occupation.

7) A difficulty.

8) A measure of distance (= vyāma q. v.).

9) Training of the army; व्यायामः स्वसैन्यानाम् (vyāyāmaḥ svasainyānām) Kau. A.1.16.

Derivable forms: vyāyāmaḥ (व्यायामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāyāma (व्यायाम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Fatigue, labour. 2. A fathom, measured by the distance to which both arms extended reach. 3. Gymnastics, athletic exercise, as playing with heavy clubs, yielding a bow with a chain in place of a string, alternate rising and falling at full length on the ground, &c. 4. Manhood, manliness. 5. A difficulty. 6. A diffcult or impassable defile, &c. 7. Business, occupation. E. vi and āṅ before yam to refrain, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāyāma (व्यायाम).—i. e. vi-ā-yam + a, m. 1. Athletic exercise. 2. Exertion, fighting, [Arjunasamāgama] 3, 40. 3. Manhood, manliness, Mahābhārata 13, 542. 4. Occupation, business. 5. A difficulty. 6. Fatigue, labour, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 5, 2. 7. A fathom (see vyāma).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāyāma (व्यायाम).—[masculine] exertion, bodily exercise, struggle, fight; a fathom (cf. vyāma).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vyāyāma (व्यायाम):—[=vy-āyāma] [from vyā-yam] m. dragging different ways, contest, strife, struggle, [Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata]

2) [v.s. ...] exertion, manly effort, athletic or gymnastic exercise (e.g., ‘playing with heavy clubs’, ‘drawing a bow with a chain’ etc.), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) exercise or practise in [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) right exercise or training, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 44] (cf. [Dharmasaṃgraha 119])

5) [v.s. ...] ‘drawing out, extending’, a [particular] measure of length, fathom (= vi-yāma and vy-āma), [Śulba-sūtra]

6) [v.s. ...] a difficult passage, any difficulty (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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