Viveka; 12 Definition(s)

Introduction

Viveka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Viveka in Purana glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

Viveka (विवेक) refers to the “power of discrimination”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.15:—“[...] the swan (haṃsa) has the power of going up steadily. It has the power of discriminating (viveka) between the real and the unreal as in (tattvātattva) separating milk from water. The swan (haṃsaka) understands the distinction between ignorance and knowledge (ajñānajñāna). Hence I (Brahmā) the Creator, assumed the form of Swan. O Nārada! But I failed to cognize the refulgent form of Śiva and therefore could not exercise my power of discrimination (viveka). How can real knowledge dawn on one who is engaged in activities of creation (sṛṣṭipravṛtti)? Hence though in the form of Swan I could not attain the power of discrimination (viveka)”.

Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Viveka (“detachment”).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'detachment', seclusion, is according to Niddesa, of 3 kinds:

  • (1) bodily detachment (kāya-viveka), i.e. abiding in solitude free from alluring sensuous objects;

  • (2) mental detachment (citta-viveka), i.e. the inner detachment from sensuous things;

  • (3) detachment from the substrata of existence (upadhi-viveka).

In the description of the 1st absorption,

  • the words "detached from sensuous things" (vivicc' eva kāmehi) refer, according to Vis.M. IV, to 'bodily detachment';

  • the words "detached from karmically unwholesome things" (vivicca akusalehi dhammehi) refer to 'mental detachment';

  • the words "born of detachment" (vivekaja), to the absence of the 5 hindrances.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Viveka (विवेक, “discrimination”) represents one of the seven types of prāyaścitta (‘expiation’). Prāyaścitta means ‘purification’ of from the flaws or transmigressions.

Viveka is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Viveka (विवेक).—What is meant by discrimination-expiation (viveka-prāyaścitta)? Separation of food, drinks and implements of self control is called discrimination-expiation.
 

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Viveka in Pali glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

viveka : (m.) detachment; seclusion.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Viveka, (fr. vi+vic) detachment, loneliness, separation, seclusion; “singleness” (of heart), discrimination (of thought) D. I, 37, 182; III, 222, 226, 283=S. IV, 191 (°ninna citta); S. I, 2, 194; IV, 365 sq.; V, 6, 240 sq.; A. I, 53; III, 329; IV, 224; Vin. IV, 241; Sn. 474, 772, 822, 851, 915, 1065; Nd1 158, 222; J. I, 79; III, 31; Dhs. 160; Pug. 59, 68; Nett 16, 50; DhsA. 164, 166; ThA. 64; PvA. 43; Sdhp. 471.—viveka is given as fivefold at Ps. II, 220 sq. and VbhA. 316, cp. K. S. I. 321 (Bdhgh on S. III, 2, 8), viz. tadaṅga°, vikkhambhana°, samuccheda° paṭippassaddhi°, nissaraṇa°; as threefold at Vism. 140, viz. kāya°, citta°, vikkhambhana°, i.e. physically, mentally, ethically; which division amounts to the same as that given at Nd1 26 with kāya°, citta°, upadhi°, the latter equivalent to “nibbāna. ” Cp. on term Dial. I. 84. See also jhāna. Cp. pa°. (Page 638)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

vivēka (विवेक).—m (S) Discrimination or judgment; the faculty of distinguishing and classing. 2 Discretion; knowledge to direct or govern one's self. 3 In the Vedanta system. The power of separating Brahma the invisible spirit from the visible or objective system, truth from untruth, reality from illusion. See the five sections in pañca- daśīgrantha named tatvavivēka, pañcabhūtavivēka, pañcakōśa- vivēka, māyādvaitavivēka, mahāvākyavivēka. Certain useful compounds are current, and others may be formed ad libitum; as sadasadvivēka Discrimination of the good and the bad or of the right and the wrong of. For others see under vicāra, substituting vivēka for vicāra and Discrimination for Consideration. vi0 jāgaviṇēṃ To awaken, arouse, or stir up discrimination or discernment. Ex. taisēṃ prathamārambhī duḥkha || parī pariṇāmīṃ atyanta sukha || tē anubhavī jāṇati samyak || jyānīṃ vivēka jāgavilā ||.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vivēka (विवेक).—m Discrimination; discretion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—

1) Discrimination, judgment, discernment, discretion; काश्यपि यातस्तवापि च विवेकः (kāśyapi yātastavāpi ca vivekaḥ) Bv.1.68,66; ज्ञातोऽयं जलधर तावको विवेकः (jñāto'yaṃ jaladhara tāvako vivekaḥ) 96; विवेकभ्रष्टानां भवति विनिपातः शतमुखः (vivekabhraṣṭānāṃ bhavati vinipātaḥ śatamukhaḥ) Bh.2.1.

2) Consideration, discussion, investigation; यच्छृङ्गारविवेकतत्त्वमपि यत् काव्येषु लीलायितम् (yacchṛṅgāravivekatattvamapi yat kāvyeṣu līlāyitam) Gīt.12; so द्वैत°, धर्म° (dvaita°, dharma°).

3) Distinction, difference, discriminating (between two things); नीरक्षीरविवेके हंसालस्यं त्वमेव तनुषे चेत् (nīrakṣīraviveke haṃsālasyaṃ tvameva tanuṣe cet) Bv.1.13; एकतामिव गतस्य विवेकः कस्यचिन्न महतोऽप्युपलेभे (ekatāmiva gatasya vivekaḥ kasyacinna mahato'pyupalebhe) Ki.9.12; Bk.17.6.

4) (In Vedānta phil.) The power of distinguishing between the visible world and the invisible spirit, or of separating reality from mere semblance or illusion.

5) True knowledge.

6) A receptacle for water, basin, reservoir.

Derivable forms: vivekaḥ (विवेकः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—m., (1) (= Pali id., e.g. Vism. 140.17 ff.) separation, aloofness (from sin): rāgadveṣamoha-viveka- kuśalamūlāś ca bhavanti Mv i.134.3 (prose); (2) (= Pali id.) solitude, seclusion (of life): ete…vivekārāmā vive- kābhiratāḥ; naite kulaputrā devamanuṣyān upaniśrāya viharanty asaṃsargacaryābhiratāḥ SP 309.10—11 (rightly Kern, wrongly Burnouf); sukho vivekas tuṣṭasya LV 380.16 (verse), Tibetan dben pa; atyabhīkṣṇaṃ vivekaṃ sevanti Mv i.96.6, of backsliding Bodhisattvas, they devote them- selves too earnestly to solitude (which violates the Bodhi- sattva ideal); vivekādayaḥ Mvy 2987 = Tibetan dben paḥi rnam paḥi miṅ la, names for varieties of solitude (list includes prānta, araṇya, etc.); °kam anubṛṃhayet Ud xiii.6 = Pali Dhp. 75 °kam anubrūhaye; saṃgaṇikayāpi vivekagocaraḥ Śikṣ 202.20, even with a crowd, he ranges in solitude.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Discrimination, judgment, the faculty of distinguishing things by their properties, and classing them according to their real not apparent nature; in the Vedanta system, it is applied to the power of separating Brahma or invisible spirit, from the ostensible world, truth from untruth, or reality from illusion. 2. Discussion, investigation. 3. A reservoir, a basin, a bath. E. vi severally, vic to judge, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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