Viveka: 26 definitions


Viveka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vivek.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Viveka (विवेक) refers to the “power of discrimination”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.15:—“[...] the swan (haṃsa) has the power of going up steadily. It has the power of discriminating (viveka) between the real and the unreal as in (tattvātattva) separating milk from water. The swan (haṃsaka) understands the distinction between ignorance and knowledge (ajñānajñāna). Hence I (Brahmā) the Creator, assumed the form of Swan. O Nārada! But I failed to cognize the refulgent form of Śiva and therefore could not exercise my power of discrimination (viveka). How can real knowledge dawn on one who is engaged in activities of creation (sṛṣṭipravṛtti)? Hence though in the form of Swan I could not attain the power of discrimination (viveka)”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Viveka (विवेक) refers to:—Discriminating intelligence. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Viveka (विवेक):—[vivekaḥ] Discrimination : the faculty of distinguishing and classifying things according to their real properties , a state of wisdom

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Viveka (विवेक, “discernment”) refers to one of the sixteen phases leading to the perception of any object (meya), according to Abhinavagupta’s Mālinīvijayavārtika:—[...] The sixteen phases [i.e.,  discernment (viveka) ...] leading to the perception of any object, if correctly and fully experienced, culminate in the liberated condition of the sixteenth phase, which is equated with the sixteenth energy of the Moon. [...] To the degree in which objectivity (meyamaya) is made manifest in this way, sixteen-fold, that is said to be the Moon of consciousness (vijñāna) considered to be the basic state (sthiti) of the sixteen energies.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Pondicherry University: Consciousness in Viśiṣṭādvaita and Dvaita

Viveka (विवेक) refers to “discrimination” and represents one of the seven moral and spiritual disciplines (sādhana-saptaka), according to the religious practices of Rāmānuja’s ethics (sādhanās) for attaining liberation.—Discrimination (viveka) means purification of the body through the intake only of sattvika-food or pure-food which has not become impure due to spices, dwelling house, or adventitious causes. [...] Rāmānuja emphasizes that persistent and sincere practise of these ethical disciplines [e.g., viveka], together with detachment, discrimination, and performance of one’s duties, practise of attention and constant contemplation on God, will purify the mind of an aspirant and produce competence for realizing God as one’s inner self.

Vedanta book cover
context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Viveka (“detachment”) or “seclusion”, is according to Niddesa, of 3 kinds:

  1. bodily detachment (kāya-viveka), i.e. abiding in solitude free from alluring sensuous objects;
  2. mental detachment (citta-viveka), i.e. the inner detachment from sensuous things;
  3. detachment from the substrata of existence (upadhi-viveka).

In the description of the 1st absorption,

  1. the words "detached from sensuous things" (vivicc'eva kāmehi) refer, according to Vis.M. IV, to 'bodily detachment';
  2. the words "detached from karmically unwholesome things" (vivicca akusalehi dhammehi) refer to 'mental detachment';
  3. the words "born of detachment" (vivekaja), to the absence of the 5 hindrances.
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Viveka (विवेक) (Cf. Vivekalakṣaṇa) refers to “(complete) transcendence”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja then sustained the jewel-canopy of ten thousand yojanas high over the Lord’s lion throne in the sky, joined the palms of his hands, saluted, and praised the Lord with these suitable verses: ‘[...] (17) No forms are seen in open space, the forms of every living being are also like that. The dharma has the essential character of a form being neither form nor non-form, such it is to understand things (artha) as complete transcendence (viveka). [...]”.

2) Viveka (विवेक) or Vivekagocara refers to the “transcendent (realm)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly, “Then, the Lord went on to speak these verses: ‘(68) Even though they remain in the inner and outer aspects of existence, they are not dependent on the parts of personality, fields of the senses, or realm (skandhāyatanadhātu). [Staying] in the transcendent realm (viveka-gocara) of tranquility (upaśānta), the wise are always in the state of concentration (samāhita). [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Viveka (विवेक, “discrimination”) represents one of the seven types of prāyaścitta (‘expiation’). Prāyaścitta means ‘purification’ of from the flaws or transmigressions.—Viveka is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Viveka (विवेक).—What is meant by discrimination-expiation (viveka-prāyaścitta)? Separation of food, drinks and implements of self control is called discrimination-expiation.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Viveka (विवेक) refers to the “discrimination”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This [virtuous meditation] confers upon corporeal souls the pleasure, produced from the tranquillity of discrimination (viveka) because of endless non-attachment, which is the experience of one’s own self [and] is beyond the senses”.

2) Viveka (विवेक) refers to the “difference” (between the body and the self), according to the Yaśastilaka Campū verse 2.123-214.—Accordingly, “Never imagine that thou art composed of the body, because the body is utterly different  (vivekavapuṣaḥ paramo vivekaḥ) from thee. Thou art all consciousness, an abode of virtue and bliss; whereas the body, because it is inert, is an unconscious mass. The body exists and grows so long as thou art in existence. When thou art dead, it disappears in the form of earth, air and the like. Composed of the elements it is devoid of feelings such as joy, like a corpse. Hence the blissful self is surely different from the body.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

viveka : (m.) detachment; seclusion.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Viveka, (fr. vi+vic) detachment, loneliness, separation, seclusion; “singleness” (of heart), discrimination (of thought) D. I, 37, 182; III, 222, 226, 283=S. IV, 191 (°ninna citta); S. I, 2, 194; IV, 365 sq.; V, 6, 240 sq.; A. I, 53; III, 329; IV, 224; Vin. IV, 241; Sn. 474, 772, 822, 851, 915, 1065; Nd1 158, 222; J. I, 79; III, 31; Dhs. 160; Pug. 59, 68; Nett 16, 50; DhsA. 164, 166; ThA. 64; PvA. 43; Sdhp. 471.—viveka is given as fivefold at Ps. II, 220 sq. and VbhA. 316, cp. K. S. I. 321 (Bdhgh on S. III, 2, 8), viz. tadaṅga°, vikkhambhana°, samuccheda° paṭippassaddhi°, nissaraṇa°; as threefold at Vism. 140, viz. kāya°, citta°, vikkhambhana°, i.e. physically, mentally, ethically; which division amounts to the same as that given at Nd1 26 with kāya°, citta°, upadhi°, the latter equivalent to “nibbāna. ” Cp. on term Dial. I. 84. See also jhāna. Cp. pa°. (Page 638)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vivēka (विवेक).—m (S) Discrimination or judgment; the faculty of distinguishing and classing. 2 Discretion; knowledge to direct or govern one's self. 3 In the Vedanta system. The power of separating Brahma the invisible spirit from the visible or objective system, truth from untruth, reality from illusion. See the five sections in pañca- daśīgrantha named tatvavivēka, pañcabhūtavivēka, pañcakōśa- vivēka, māyādvaitavivēka, mahāvākyavivēka. Certain useful compounds are current, and others may be formed ad libitum; as sadasadvivēka Discrimination of the good and the bad or of the right and the wrong of. For others see under vicāra, substituting vivēka for vicāra and Discrimination for Consideration. vi0 jāgaviṇēṃ To awaken, arouse, or stir up discrimination or discernment. Ex. taisēṃ prathamārambhī duḥkha || parī pariṇāmīṃ atyanta sukha || tē anubhavī jāṇati samyak || jyānīṃ vivēka jāgavilā ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vivēka (विवेक).—m Discrimination; discretion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—

1) Discrimination, judgment, discernment, discretion; काश्यपि यातस्तवापि च विवेकः (kāśyapi yātastavāpi ca vivekaḥ) Bv.1.68,66; ज्ञातोऽयं जलधर तावको विवेकः (jñāto'yaṃ jaladhara tāvako vivekaḥ) 96; विवेकभ्रष्टानां भवति विनिपातः शतमुखः (vivekabhraṣṭānāṃ bhavati vinipātaḥ śatamukhaḥ) Bhartṛhari 2.1.

2) Consideration, discussion, investigation; यच्छृङ्गारविवेकतत्त्वमपि यत् काव्येषु लीलायितम् (yacchṛṅgāravivekatattvamapi yat kāvyeṣu līlāyitam) Gītagovinda 12; so द्वैत°, धर्म° (dvaita°, dharma°).

3) Distinction, difference, discriminating (between two things); नीरक्षीरविवेके हंसालस्यं त्वमेव तनुषे चेत् (nīrakṣīraviveke haṃsālasyaṃ tvameva tanuṣe cet) Bv.1.13; एकतामिव गतस्य विवेकः कस्यचिन्न महतोऽप्युपलेभे (ekatāmiva gatasya vivekaḥ kasyacinna mahato'pyupalebhe) Kirātārjunīya 9.12; Bhaṭṭikāvya 17.6.

4) (In Vedānta phil.) The power of distinguishing between the visible world and the invisible spirit, or of separating reality from mere semblance or illusion.

5) True knowledge.

6) A receptacle for water, basin, reservoir.

Derivable forms: vivekaḥ (विवेकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—m., (1) (= Pali id., e.g. Vism. 140.17 ff.) separation, aloofness (from sin): rāgadveṣamoha-viveka- kuśalamūlāś ca bhavanti Mahāvastu i.134.3 (prose); (2) (= Pali id.) solitude, seclusion (of life): ete…vivekārāmā vive- kābhiratāḥ; naite kulaputrā devamanuṣyān upaniśrāya viharanty asaṃsargacaryābhiratāḥ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 309.10—11 (rightly Kern, wrongly Burnouf); sukho vivekas tuṣṭasya Lalitavistara 380.16 (verse), Tibetan dben pa; atyabhīkṣṇaṃ vivekaṃ sevanti Mahāvastu i.96.6, of backsliding Bodhisattvas, they devote them- selves too earnestly to solitude (which violates the Bodhi- sattva ideal); vivekādayaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 2987 = Tibetan dben paḥi rnam paḥi miṅ la, names for varieties of solitude (list includes prānta, araṇya, etc.); °kam anubṛṃhayet Udānavarga xiii.6 = Pali Dhammapada (Pali) 75 °kam anubrūhaye; saṃgaṇikayāpi vivekagocaraḥ Śikṣāsamuccaya 202.20, even with a crowd, he ranges in solitude.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Discrimination, judgment, the faculty of distinguishing things by their properties, and classing them according to their real not apparent nature; in the Vedanta system, it is applied to the power of separating Brahma or invisible spirit, from the ostensible world, truth from untruth, or reality from illusion. 2. Discussion, investigation. 3. A reservoir, a basin, a bath. E. vi severally, vic to judge, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—i. e. vi-vic + a, m. 1. Discrimination, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 26; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 294. 2. Judgment, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 10. 3. Discussion, investigation. 4. True knowledge, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 89. 5. A reservoir.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viveka (विवेक).—[masculine] separation, discrimination, discernment, examination, consideration, judgment insight, penetration; poss. vivekavant & vivekin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Viveka (विवेक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—in law. See Kāla, Jāti, Tithi, Dāna, Prāyaścitta, Śuddhi, Śrāddha, Sambandha, Smṛti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viveka (विवेक):—[=vi-veka] [from vi-vic] a m. discrimination, distinction, [Manu-smṛti; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] consideration, discussion, investigation, [Gīta-govinda; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

3) [v.s. ...] true knowledge, discretion, right judgement, the faculty of distinguishing and classifying things according to their real properties, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Kapila] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (in Vedānta) the power of separating the invisible Spirit from the visible world (or spirit from matter, truth from untruth, reality from mere semblance or illusion)

5) [v.s. ...] a water trough (= jala-droṇī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of [work]

7) [=vi-veka] b etc. See under vi-√vic.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viveka (विवेक):—[vi-veka] (kaḥ) 1. m. Discrimination; investigation; a reservoir.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Viveka (विवेक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vivega.

[Sanskrit to German]

Viveka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Viveka (विवेक) [Also spelled vivek]:—(nm) reason, discretion; judgment; wisdom; ~[ka-buddhi] reason; discretion; wisdom; ~[ka-bhraṣṭa/śūnya/hīna] irrational, illogical; ~[kavāna ~kaśīla] see ~[kī; ~kādhīna] discretionary; at the discretion of; •[śaktiyāṃ] discretionary powers; ~[] prudent, wise, discreet.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vivēka (ವಿವೇಕ):—

1) [noun] an analytical study.

2) [noun] a judging of the worth, quality, etc. of; evaluation.

3) [noun] the power of judging rightly and following the soundest course of action, based on knowledge, experience, understanding, etc.; good judgement; sagacity; wisdom.

4) [noun] (phil.) the penetrating intelligence required for discriminating and understanding the difference between the phenomenal world and the Supreme Being immanent therein.

5) [noun] ವಿವೇಕ ಬೃಹಸ್ಪತಿ [viveka brihaspati] vivēka břhaspati a person who is very wise.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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