Netra: 28 definitions


Netra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Netra (नेत्र) refers to the “eyes”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.9.—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“On hearing these words of the lord of mountains, Mena was greatly delighted. She approached her daughter to advise her to take interest in penance. On seeing the tender limbs of her daughter, Menakā was greatly distressed. Her eyes [i.e., netra-yugma] welled up in tears immediately. The beloved of the lord of mountains was unable to advise her daughter to perform penance. Pārvatī understood the implied wish of her mother quickly. Then the omniscient supreme goddess Pārvatī immediately spoke to her mother after consoling her again and again”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Netra (नेत्र).—A son of Dharma and father of Kunti.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 22.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Netra (नेत्र) refers to the “eyes”. It is one of the six minor limbs (upāṅga) used in dramatic performance, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Netra (नेत्र) refers to the “root” of a tree, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Netra] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Netra (नेत्र):—[netraḥ] Eye

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Netra (नेत्र) refers to a “forehead eye”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 9.—Accordingly, “[...] [The Lord spoke]:—Wearing half the dress of a woman and half [that of] a man, on one half, he should place [feminine] tresses, on one half, he should wear matted locks. On one half, there should be a forehead mark; on one half a [forehead] eye (netra-ardhanetrārdhe) . A ring [should be] in one ear; a [pendant] ear-ornament in one ear. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Netra (नेत्र) represents the number 2 (two) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 2—netra] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra (etymology)

Netra (नेत्र) derives from √, the verbal root meaning “to protect”; Mṛtyujit stems from mṛtyu, with the verbal root √mṛ, “to die”, combined with √ji, “to conquer”; and Amṛteśa from amṛta, again from the root √mṛ with the negative prefix a, meaning “non-death”. This is combined with the word “god”, īśa. Though all are the same deity, these names demonstrate the different aims for which people worship him. Some seek relief from worldly ailments, others to overcome death, and finally mokṣa.

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Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Netra (नेत्र) or “eye” refers to one of the various body parts whose Measurements should follow the principles of ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, a specific measurement of every limb of a man as well as of a woman is elaborately and systematically discussed. In this book, the writer has presented the measurement of almost all the body parts that should be maintained in a picture. For example, Netra (“eye”) should be 3 X 1 aṅgulas.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Netra (नेत्र) refers to the “eyes” (of hawks), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the training of hawks]: “Now we will treat of how to inspire the hawks with confidence. An expert will close the eyes (netra) by sewing (t.e., seeling) them [ādau vimudrayen netre sīvanena vicakṣaṇaḥ] so that the hawk may not see his face for five days, nor should it hear the trainer’s voice during this period. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Netra (नेत्र) refers to a type of “eye” and represents one of the items held in the left hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, netra]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Netra (नेत्र) refers to “eyes”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those who are former friends (i.e. friends in a former life) are seen in life here endowed with enmity, having eyes filled with anger [com.—koparakta-netra—‘having eyes reddened with rage’] [and] prepared to kill”.

Synonyms: Akṣa.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Netra.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’; in some areas of Eastern India, it was used in the sense of Hara-netra, ‘three’. The word dṛk seems to bear the sense of three in the Pamulavaka plates of Eastern Cālukya Vijayāditya VII (JAHRS, Vol. II, p. 287, text line 67). Note: netra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Netra (नेत्र) or Netrapaṭṭa refers to a type of figured and coloured silk (cloth), commonly traded with foreign merchants in ancient India, according to Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—At Sūrpāraka there was a guild of local merchants. It was their custom to hold a reception in honour of merchants from outside and to learn from them the country of their origin, the destination, field of trade, the nature, value and volume of commodity in which he is interested and all such matters relating to his business. [...] One said: “I went to China (Indo-China) and Mahācīna (great Chinese mainland) taking buffaloes and the naval dear and brought from there two kinds of fabrics named gaṅgāpaṭṭa and netrapaṭṭa” [...]

Netrapaṭṭa is a colour-silk mentioned for the first time in the Raghuvaṃsa of Kālidāsa (7.39). Bāṇa mentions netra about 150 years before Uddyotanasūri, and it appears that netra was a special kind of figured and coloured silk which according to Śaṃkara was synonymous with pṛṅga. It is new information that figured Chinese silk was given the new trade name of netra in India (See Harṣacarita). Somadevasūri (959 A.D.) refers to netra as a superior silken fabric that was in use in the Rāṣṭrakūṭa empire. The Varṇaratnākara of Jyotirīśvara Ṭhakkura (about 1400 A.D.) mentions two kinds of netra cloth mostly according to their different colours. Jāyasī (circa 1528 A.D.) mentions netra as a superior silken fabric used in the royal houses.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Netra in India is the name of a plant defined with Pterocarpus marsupium in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Pterocarpus marsupium fo. biloba (Roxb. ex G. Don) Prain (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants (1832)
· Familles des Plantes (1763)
· Taxon (1980)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1990)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia (1763)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Netra, for example side effects, chemical composition, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nētra (नेत्र).—m n (S) An eye.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Netra (नेत्र).—[nayati nīyate vā anena nī-ṣṭran]

1) Leading, conducting, directing; कर्मणा दैवनेत्रेण जन्तुदेहोपपत्तये (karmaṇā daivanetreṇa jantudehopapattaye) Bhāgavata 3.31.1.

2) The eye; प्रायेण गृहिणीनेत्राः कन्यार्थेषु कृटुम्बिनः (prāyeṇa gṛhiṇīnetrāḥ kanyārtheṣu kṛṭumbinaḥ) Kumārasambhava 6.85; 2.29,3;7.13.

3) The string of a churning-stick; मन्थानं मन्दरं कृत्वा तथा नेत्रं च वासुकिम् (manthānaṃ mandaraṃ kṛtvā tathā netraṃ ca vāsukim) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.18.13; Bhāg. 8.6.22.

4) Woven silk, a fine silken garment; नेत्र- क्रमेणोपरुरोध सूर्यम् (netra- krameṇoparurodha sūryam) R.7.39. (where some commentators take netram in its ordinary sense of the 'eye').

5) The root of a tree.

6) An enema pipe.

7) A carriage, conveyance in general.

8) The number 'two'.

9) A leader; सूर्योदये सञ्जय के नु पूर्वं युयुत्सवो हृष्यमाणा इवासन् । मामका वा भीष्मनेत्राः समीपे पाण्डवा वा भीमनेत्रास्तदानीम् (sūryodaye sañjaya ke nu pūrvaṃ yuyutsavo hṛṣyamāṇā ivāsan | māmakā vā bhīṣmanetrāḥ samīpe pāṇḍavā vā bhīmanetrāstadānīm) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.2.1.

1) A constellation, star. (said to be m. only in these two senses).

11) A river; Nm.

12) A kind of vein; Nm.

13) A bug; Nm.

14) A bark of a tree; Nm.

Derivable forms: netram (नेत्रम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Netra (नेत्र).—m. (otherwise nt.), eye: netrā…tvacanaddhāḥ (n. pl.) Lalitavistara 324.11 (verse; no v.l.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Netra (नेत्र).—mfn.

(-traḥ-trī-traṃ) A leader, a guide, one who guides or leads. n.

(-traṃ) 1. The eye. 2. The foot of a tree. 3. Bleached or wove silk. 4. A car, a carriage. 5. The string of a churning rope. 6. An enemapipe. 7. The number “two”. mn.

(-traḥ-traṃ) Any tubular vessel. f. (-trī) 1. A river. 2. The goddess Lakshmi. E. ṇī to guide or gain, Unadi aff. ṣṭran, fem. aff. ṅīp .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Netra (नेत्र).—i. e. nī + tra, I. A substitute for netṛ when latter part of a comp. adj., e. g. bhavannetra, i. e. bhavant-, Having thee as commander, Mahābhārata 7, 3702. Ii. n. 1. The eye, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 44. 2. The string of a churning rope, Mahābhārata 1, 1124.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Netra (नेत्र).—[masculine] leader, guide (only adj. —°); a man’s name, [neuter] netra guidance, conduct, the eye.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Netra (नेत्र):—[from netavya] m. a leader, guide (with [genitive case] [Rāmāyaṇa [B.] iii, 66, 10]; mostly ifc. e.g. tvaṃ-netra, ‘having you for guide’ [Mahābhārata ii, 2486] [f. ā, [ib. ix, 222]]; cf. [Pāṇini 5-4, 116], [vArttika] 2, 3, [Patañjali]), [Aitareya-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Dharma and father of Kuntī, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] of a son of Su-mati, [Matsya-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] n. (and m., [Siddhānta-kaumudī]) leading, guiding, conducting, [Atharva-veda x, 10, 22]

5) [v.s. ...] (ifc. f(ā). ) the eye (as the guiding organ, also -ka, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]; cf. nayana)

6) [v.s. ...] the numeral 2 [Sūryasiddhānta] (cf. netṛ)

7) [v.s. ...] the string by which a churning-stick is whirled round, [Mahābhārata]

8) [v.s. ...] a pipe-tube, [Caraka]

9) [v.s. ...] an injection pipe, [Suśruta]

10) [v.s. ...] the root of a tree, [Kādambarī]

11) [v.s. ...] a kind of cloth, [Harṣacarita]

12) [v.s. ...] a veil, [Rāmāyaṇa; Raghuvaṃśa]

13) [v.s. ...] a carriage, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] a river, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Netra (नेत्र):—[(traḥ-trī-traṃ) a.] Leading. n. The eye; root of a tree; wove silk; a car; churning string; enema pipe. m. n. Tubular vessel. f. A river; Lakshmi.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Netra (नेत्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇetta.

[Sanskrit to German]

Netra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Netra (नेत्र):—(nm) an eye; ~[ka] an eye-piece; -[jala] tear(s); -[roga] eye diseases; ~[vijñāna] ophthalmology; ~[vaijñānika] ophthalmologist; ~[vihīna] blind.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nētra (ನೇತ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the organ of sight; the eye.

2) [noun] a cord tied to a churning stick used to turn churn.

3) [noun] the root of a tree.

4) [noun] a rootlike extension that grows from the branch of a tree (as banian), takes root in the ground and later becomes an additional trunk; an aerial root.

5) [noun] a kind of cloth.

6) [noun] the tree Areca catechu of Arecaceae family; areca tree.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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