Murti, Mūrti, Mūrtī: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Murti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama

mūrti–Anything which has definite shape and physical limits, an embodiment orincarnation. This is a Sanskrit term used in hindu iconology (e.g. the Āgamas).

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction

Mūrti (मूर्ति).—anything which has definite shape and physical limits, an embodiment or incarnation.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Mūrti (मूर्ति).—One of the thirteen daughters of Dakṣaprajāpati. This girl was married to Dharma. Nara and Nārāyaṇa are the sons born to Mūrti of Dharma. (4th Skandha, Bhāgavata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mūrti (मूर्ति).—A sage of the epoch of the Tenth Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 22.

1b) A son of Vasiṣṭha and a Prajāpati of the Svārociṣa epoch.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 9.

2) Mūrtī (मूर्ती).—A daughter of Dakṣa, and a wife of Dharma; mother of Nara and Nārāyaṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 4. 6; II. 7. 6; IV. 1. 50 and 52.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ganapatya (worship of Ganesha)

Source: Google Books: Ganapati: Song of the Self

Mūrti (मूर्ति) refers to “consecrated physical objects” and is associated with the worship of a deity (pūjā).—Mūrti (or pratima or arca) refers to “image” or “picture” and are physical objects consecrated for worship. They may be movable (cala) or immovable (acala). The latter are fixed on pedestals and cannot be moved once they are installed, and thus there is neither invocation nor dismissal for them. [...] For any external worship of Gaṇeśa, the first requirement that is absolutely necessary is a mūrti, an image (or photo) of Gaṇeśa. Not only should this image be a source of happiness, it should also invoke feelings of serenity within one. Second, his trunk should turn toward his left side, and his eyes should be looking directly at you.

context information

Ganapatya (गाणपत्य, gāṇapatya) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Ganesha is revered and worshipped as the prime deity (ishta-devata). Being a minor though influential movement, Ganapatya evovled, llike Shaktism and Shaivism, as a separate movement leaving behind a large body of literature.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Mūrti (मूर्ति) refers to:—A form; Deity. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Mūrti (मूर्ति) refers to “iconic” (e.g., mūrtirūpā—one who abides in an iconic form), according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Referring to the inner space within the triangular Yoni, the Śrīmatottara says: “O fair lady, thus Śrīnātha sports in the Circle of the Void (śūnyamaṇḍala) and (so does) Kubjikā, the mother of Kula who is Kuṇḍalī by name. [...] Applied on the plane of mantra and visualization, she who is undifferentiated (niṣkalā) is differentiated (sakalā). When she abides in the differentiated (aspect), she abides as mantra. Undifferentiated, she is devoid of mantra. When she abides in an iconic form [i.e., mūrti-rūpā], she is gross; she is subtle when present in the aniconic (amūrti) (aspect). Linked to the planes of mantra and iconic she is action impelled on the plane of visualization (dhyāna)”.

2) Mūrti (मूर्ति) refers to the “divine effigy”, according to Abhinava’s Tantrāloka verse 6.2-4.—Accordingly, “The places are said to be of three kinds: in the vital breath, in the body and outside (the body). The breath is five-fold in the body. (Thus, place) is of two kinds, according to whether it is outside (the body) or within (it). The external (places) are the maṇḍala, the sacrificial ground (sthaṇḍila), the (sacrificial) vessel (pātra), the rosary (akṣasūtra), the book (pustaka), the Liṅga, the skull (tūra), the cloth (paṭa), the image (made of papier-mâché) (pusta), the idol (pratimā), and the divine effigy (mūrti). Thus the outer (place) is of eleven kinds (each which are of) countless varieties. ”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Mūrti (मूर्ति) refers to the “embodiment (of the Pāśupata teaching)”, according to the Halāyudhastotra verse 3.—Accordingly, “Victorious is the One God, Śiva, the embodiment (mūrti) of the Kevalajñāna [i.e., kevalajñānamūrtir]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Understanding Mantras

Deities have three forms (mūrti):

  1. as personifications (devatāmūrti);
  2. as symbolic diagrams (yantramūrti);
  3. and as sound (mantramūrti).

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Mūrti (मूर्ति) refers to the “body”, according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [vanayātrā in chapter 5]—“When the wood [to be used for the construction of a monastery] or the stones [to be used for the construction of a caitya] are brought into the city, [the Ācārya] should send a message [that these materials are being brought into the city] to the king or the citizens. He should make people with joyful minds whose bodies quiver with excitement (madana-sphūrti-mūrti) carry [these materials]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Mūrti (मूर्ति) refers to “form” (of an object), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those objects having a pleasant form (puṇya-mūrti), which are seen in the morning and not at midday, vanish for the embodied souls in this world”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Mūrti.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘three’; rarely used to indicate ‘eight’; but cf. rūpa used in the sense of ‘one’. Note: mūrti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mūrti (मूर्ति).—f A statue, an idol. The body. A person.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mūrti (मूर्ति).—f. [mūrcch-ktin]

1) Anything which has definite shape and limits, material element, matter, substance; एतत् सर्वं यन्मूर्तं चामूर्तं च तस्मान्मूर्तिरेव रयिः (etat sarvaṃ yanmūrtaṃ cāmūrtaṃ ca tasmānmūrtireva rayiḥ) Praśna Up.1.5.

2) A form, visible shape, body, figure; कौटिल्यधीरज्जु- निबद्धमूर्तिं मन्ये स्थिरां मौर्यनृपस्य लक्ष्मीम् (kauṭilyadhīrajju- nibaddhamūrtiṃ manye sthirāṃ mauryanṛpasya lakṣmīm) Mu.2.2; R.3.27; 14.54.

3) An embodiment, incarnation, personification, manifestation; करुणस्य मूर्तिः (karuṇasya mūrtiḥ) Uttararāmacarita 3.4; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.159.

4) An image, idol, a statue.

5) Beauty.

6) Solidity, hardness.

7) Body (kalevara); विशिखसंहतितापितमूर्तिभिः (viśikhasaṃhatitāpitamūrtibhiḥ) Kirātārjunīya 14.64; Manusmṛti 1.17,19.

8) A limb of the body (śarīrāvayava); नहि मे तप्यमानस्य क्षयं यास्यन्ति मूर्तयः (nahi me tapyamānasya kṣayaṃ yāsyanti mūrtayaḥ) Rām.1. 64.2.

9) (In phil.) The mind and the four elements earth, air, fire and water.

Derivable forms: mūrtiḥ (मूर्तिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrti (मूर्ति).—probably better mūrtti, i. e. mṛd + ti, cf. [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 120. 1. Matter, substance, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 17; hard substances, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 120 (Jones: the terrene parts of the human body). 2. Figure, form, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 1; [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 169. 3. Body, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 364. 4. Incarnation, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 98. 5. Image, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 225. 6. Beauty, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 107.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrti (मूर्ति).—[feminine] (firm) body, embodiment, form, shape, image, person, adj. —° formed of; [plural] the solid parts of the body.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mūrti (मूर्ति):—[from mūrch] f. any solid body or material form, ([plural] material elements, solid particles; ifc. = consisting or formed of), [Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] embodiment, manifestation, incarnation, personification, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. ([especially] of Śiva, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi])

3) [v.s. ...] anything which has definite shape or limits (in [philosophy] as mind and the 4 elements earth, air, fire, water, but not ākāśa, ether, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 52 n. 1]), a person, form, figure, appearance, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] an image, idol, statue, [Kāvya literature]

5) [v.s. ...] beauty, [Pañcatantra]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of the first astrological house, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Dharma, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Ṛṣi under the 10th Manu, [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vasiṣṭha, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

[Sanskrit to German]

Murti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mūrti (मूर्ति):—(nf) an idol, statue; image; -[kalā] sculpture; statuary; ~[kāra] sculptor; statuary; ~[pūjaka] an idolater; -[pūjana/pūjā] idolatry; ~[bhaṃjaka] an iconoclast; -[bhaṃjana] iconoclasm; ~[vijñāna] iconography; -[saṃgraha] statuary; —, [laghu] statuette; —[toḍanā] to indulge in iconoclasm; to shatter a statue/an image.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mūrti (ಮೂರ್ತಿ):—

1) [noun] the shape, outline or configuration of anything; the form; any solid body; a material form.

2) [noun] the physical structure of a human being; the body.

3) [noun] an idol of a deity, human being etc.; a statue.

4) [noun] an assuming of a physical form (as by an abstract principle); manifestation; embodiment; personification.

5) [noun] the quality of being hard, rigid or solid.

6) [noun] the quality of being beautiful; beauty.

7) [noun] a crow.

8) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number three.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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