Murala, Muralā: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Murala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Murala (मुरल)—Sanskrit word for a fish. This animal is from the group called Nādeya-matsya (‘fresh water fish’). Nādeya-matsya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).

The species of fish known as the Murala is constructive, tonic, spermatopoietic and galactagoguic.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Murala (मुरल) is the name of a kingdom that was conquered by Udayana (king of Vatsa) during his campaign to obtain sovereignty over the whole earth, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 19. Accordingly, “He no longer allowed the Muralas to exalt their heads, for they were completely beaten down by tributes imposed on them”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Murala, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: archive.org: The ocean of story, vol. 1

Murala (मुरल) is another name for Kerala, now Malabar (Hall). Wilson identifies it with the Curula of Ptolemy.-Barnett, however, considers this very dubious— n.m.p.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Murala (मुरल) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It is the region of southern India, which characterizes the complexion of the ladies of this country as black. Rājaśekhara does not identify it with Kerala, because Kerala is mentioned separately by him. Murala is a river in south India, which is different from the Narmadā. In the Raghuvaṃśa (IV. 53-55) Kālidāsa identified this river flowing near the Sahya mountain and the Aparantadeśa. The region lying between Kerala and Aparantaka near Sahya on the Murala, therefore be taken to be the present equivalent of the Murala country.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Murala (मुरल) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya:—“All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [...] and other countries which are the ornaments of the eastern quarter; [... in the Muralas, ...] these now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Murala (मुरल) is the name of a country included within Dakṣiṇapatha which was situated ahead of Māhiṣmatī according to Rājaśekhara (fl. 10th century) in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā (chapter 17). Dakṣiṇāpatha is a place-name ending is patha mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Murala (मुरल).—

1) A kind of fresh-water fish.

2) A king of the Muralas.

-lāḥ pl. Name of a country.

Derivable forms: muralaḥ (मुरलः).

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Muralā (मुरला).—Name of a river rising in the country of the Keralas; (mentioned in U.3. along with tamasā); मुरला- मारुतोद्धूतमगमत् कैतकं रजः (muralā- mārutoddhūtamagamat kaitakaṃ rajaḥ) R.4.55.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muralā (मुरला).—f.

(-lā) The Narmada river.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muralā (मुरला).—f. The Narmadā river, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 50, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Murala (मुरल).—[masculine] a cert. fish; [plural] [Name] of a people.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Murala (मुरल):—m. ([probably] [from] √3. mur) a species of fresh-water fish, [Suśruta]

2) a king of the Muralas, [Inscriptions]

3) [plural] Name of a people, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

4) Muralā (मुरला):—[from murala] f. Name of a river in the country of the Keralas (= murandalā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Raghuvaṃśa] ([varia lectio] muracī), [Uttararāma-carita]

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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