Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Nihnutayoni (1): Tulyadehitulya’ of the study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

Part 6.1d - Nihnutayoni (1): Tulyadehitulya

It is the third type of way to borrow or imitate and consists in having different senses expressed in a similar word-construction. In a poetic composition, where despite difference of matter, identity is apprehended through extreme resemblance, that poem due to ‘corporeal equivalence’ is composed by clever men.

C.f.

viṣayasya yatra bhede'pyabhodabuddhirnitāntasādṛśyāt |
tattulyadehitulyaṃ kāvyaṃ badhnanti sudhiyo'pi || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 63

It is that poetic theme which have a separate identity though they are resemble each other. Its nature seems to just like twin brothers of similar appearance who have separate identity.

Rājaśekhara divided it into eight parts: i.e.

  1. Viṣayaparivarta,
  2. Dvandvavicchitti,
  3. Ratnamāla,
  4. Saṅkhyollekha,
  5. Cūlikā,
  6. Vidhānāpahāra,
  7. Māṇikyapuñja and
  8. Kanda.

(a) Viṣayaparivarta:

tasyaiva vastuno viṣayāntarayojanādanyarūpāpattirviṣayaparivarttaḥ|”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 71

Means:

“When a poet described the idea of an earlier poet so as described a different objects, thus it is called Viṣayaparivarta Tulyadehitulya haraṇa.”

For an example:

ye sīmantitagātrabhasmarajaso ye ku mbhakadveṣiṇo
  ye līḍhāḥ śravaṇāśrayeṇa phaṇinā ye candraśaityadruhaḥ
|
te ku pyadgirijāvibhaktavapuṣaśrittavyathāsākṣiṇaḥ
  sthāṇordakṣiṇanāsikāpuṭabhuvaḥ śvāsānilāḥ pāntu vaḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 7

Another example with same meaning:

ye kīrṇakkathitodarābjhamadhavo ye mlāpitoraḥstrajo
  ye tāpāttaralena talpaphaṇinā pītapratīpojjhitāḥ
|
te rādhāsmṛtisākṣiṇaḥ kamalayā sāsūyamākarṇitā
  gāḍhāntarvathoḥ prataptasaralāḥ śvāsā hareḥ pāntu vaḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 71

Here, the subject in the first śloka is the separation of Śiva-Pārvatī, while the second śloka it described in Rādha-Kṛṣṇa. Almost all the adjectives remain the same in both śloka, only the object is changed. Thus it is an example of Viṣayaparivarta Tulyadehitulya haraṇa.

(b) Dvandvavicchitti:

dvirūpasya vastuno'nyatama(ra)rūpopādānaṃ dvandvavicchittiḥ|”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 71

Means:

“In a poetic composition when there is appropriation of only one of the two aspects of a thing described by an early poet, thus it is called Dvandvavicchitti.”

For an example:

utkleśaṃ ke śabandhaḥ ku sumaśararipoḥ kalmaṣaṃ vaḥ sa muṣyādyattenduṃ
  vīkṣya gaṅgājalabharalulitaṃ bālabhāvādabhūtām
|
krauñcārātiśca phāṇṭasphu ritaśapharikāmohalokṣaṇaśrīḥ
  sadyaḥ prodyanmṛṇālīgrahaṇarasalasatpuṣkaraśca dvipāsyaḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 71-72

Another example with same meaning:

diśyāddhūrjaṭijuṭakoṭisariti jyotsnālavodbhāsinī
  śāśāṅkī kalikā jalabhramivaśāddrāg dṛṣṭanaṣṭā sukham
|
yāṃ cañcacchapharībhrameṇa muku līku rvanphaṇālīṃ
  muhurmuhyallakṣyamahirjighṛkṣatitamāmākuñjanaprāñcanaiḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Here, in the first śloka two aspects of digit of the moon in the shining water of the river flowing through the matted locks of Siva has been pictures as the fibrous stalk of a lotus and a fish, but in the second śloka its comparison has been restricted to a fish. Thus it is an example of Dvandvavicchitti Tulyadehitulya haraṇa.

(c) Ratnamāla:

pūrvārthānāmarthāntairarantaṇaṃ ratnamālā |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Means:

“When the idea of earlier poets is interwoven with new ones, by the later poet thus it is called Ratnamālā types of Tulyadehitulya haraṇa.”

For an example:

kapāle mārjāraḥ paya iti karāṃlleḍhi śaśinaḥ
  taruṃ cchidraprotānbisamiti kare ṇuḥ kalayati
|
ratānte talpasthānharati vanitā'pyaṃśukamiti
  prabhāmattaścando jagadidamaho vibhramayati
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Another example with same meaning:

jyotsnāṃrcirdugdhabuddhyā kavalitamasakṛdbhājane rājahaṃsaiḥ
  svāṃse karpūrapāsuccharaṇabhasataḥ sambhṛtaṃ sundarībhiḥ
|
pumbhirvyastaṃ stanāntātsicayamiti rahaḥsambhrame vallabhāmāṃ
  līṭhaṃ drāksindhuvāre ṣvabhinavasumanolampaṭaiḥ ṣaṭpadaiśca
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Here the second śloka the import of the first śloka is interwoven suggestively. Thus it is an example of Ratnamālā types of Tulyadehitulya haraṇa.

(d) Saṅkhyollekha:

saṅkhyāvaiṣamyeṇārthapraṇayanaṃ saṅkhyollokhaḥ

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Means:

“In a poetic composition when there is a striking difference in the numbers expressed in two different ślokas, thus it is called Samkhyollekha types of Tulyadehitulya haraṇa.”

For an instance:

namannārāyaṇacchāyācchu ritāḥ pādayornakhāḥ|
tvaccan_mra_miva yevante rudra rudre(ddhe)ndavo daśa (?) || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Another example with same meaning:

umaikapādāmburuhe sphu rannakhe kṛtāgaso yasya śiraḥsamāgame |
ṣaḍātmatāmāśrayatīva candramāḥ sa nīlakaṇḍhaḥ priyamātanotu vaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Here, in the second śloka the half-moon on Siva’s forehead divides itself into six parts which is in direct contrast to the description of ten half moons on the forehead of the ten Rudras described in the first śloka.

(e) Cūlikā:

samamabhidhāyādhikasyopanyāsaścalikā |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Means:

“In a poetic composition when the idea if an earlier poet is made striking by adding a new dimension to it, thus it is called Cūlikā types of Tulyadehitulya haraṇa.”

Again it is divided into two fold i.e.

  1. Samvādinī (in correspondence with [the original idea]) and
  2. Visamvādinī (not in correspondence with [the original idea]).

For an example:

aṅgaṇe śaśimarīcilepane suptamindukarapuñjasannibham |
rājahaṃsamasamīkṣya kātarā rauti haṃsavanitā'śrugadgadam || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 72

Another śloka with the same meaning:

candaprabhāprasarahāsini saudhṛpaṣḍhe durlakṣapakṣatipuṭāṃ na viveda jāyām |
mūḍhaśrutirmukharanūpuraniḥsvanena vyāhāriṇīmapi puro gṛharājahaṃsaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

Another śloka for Visamvādinī Cūlikā:

jyotsnājalasnāyini saudhapṛṣṭhe viviktamuktāphalapuñjagauram |
viveda haṃsī dayitaṃ kathañcaccalantulākoṭikalairninādaiḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

Here, the second śloka an idea similar to the first śloka is depicted with slight additions by later poet, so it is an example of Samvadini Cūlikā. And the idea expressed in the third śloka is quite opposite or contradictory of first śloka. Thus it is an example of Visamvādinī Cūlikā.

(f) Vidhānāpahāra:

niṣedhasya vidhinā nibandho vidhānāpahāraḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

In a poetic composition when presentation of the negative statement of an earlier poet as affirmative thus it is called by Vidhānāpahāra haraṇa. For an example:

ku rabaka ku cāghātakrīḍārasena viyujyase
  baku laviṭapin smarttavyaṃ te mukhāsavasecanam
|
caraṇaghaṭanāśūnyo yāsyasyaśoka saśokatāmiti
  nijapuratyāgo yasya dviṣāṃ jagaduḥ striyaḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

Another example with same meaning:

mukhamadirayā pādanyāsairvilokitairvaku
  laviṭapī raktāśokastathā tilakadrumaḥ
|
jalanidhitaṭīkāntārāṇāṃ kramāktaku bhāṃ jaye
  jhagiti gamitā yadvargyāmirvikāsamahotsavam
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

Here, in the first śloka the non-blooming of kurabaka, Bakula and Aśoka flower in the absence of corresponding action of ladies is described. But in second śloka the same idea is expressed in an affirmative sense. Thus it is an example of Vidhānāpahāra types of haraṇa.

(g) Māṇikyapuñja:

bahunāmarthānāmekatropasaṃhāro māṇikyapuñjaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

In a poetic composition when different ideas scattered in various ślokas and arranging together in a concise manner thus it is called as Mānikyapuñja.

C.f.

rajanipurandhrirodhratilakastinamiradvipayūthake sarī
rajatamayo'habhiṣekakalaśaḥ ku sumāyudhamedinīpateḥ
|
ayamudayācalaikacūḍāmaṇarabhinavadarpaṇo diśāmudayati
  gaganasarasi haṃsasya hasanniva vibhramaṃ śaśī
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

Here the idea of this śloka is an arrangement of idea partly borrowed from different following ślokas. i.e.

śailacchalena svaṃ dīrghaṃ bhujamuttabhya bhūvadhūḥ|
niśāsakhyāḥ karotīva śaśāṅkatilakaṃ mukhe || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

And,

phu llātimuktaku sumastabakābhirāmadūrollasaktiraṇake saramindusiṃham |
dṛṣṭ vodayādriśikharasthitamandhakāradurvāravāraṇaghaṭā vyaghaṭanta sadyaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73

And also,

saṃvidhātumabhiṣekamudāse manmathasya lasadaṃśulaughaḥ ||
yāminīvanitayā tatacihnaḥ soptalo rajataku mbha ivenduḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 73-74

And,

udayati paśya kṛśodari dalitatvakṣīra (tvaksāra)karaṇibhiḥ kiraṇaiḥ|
udayācalacūḍāmaṇire ṣa puro rohiṇīramaṇaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

And,

udayati navanītapiṇḍapāṇḍuḥ ku sudavanānyavaṭṭayankarāgraiḥ|
udayagiritaṭasphu ṭāṭṭahāso rajanivadhūmudarpaṇaḥ śaśāṅkaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

And also,

proṣitaike nduhaṃsa'sminsasnāviva tamo'mbubhiḥ |
nabhastaḍāge madanastārāku mudahā(bhā)sini || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

Here in each of the pada the ideas borrowed from the above first ślokarajanipurandhri’ and arranged concisely. Thus it is an example for Mānikyapuñja haraṇa.

(h) Kanda:

kandabhūto'rthaḥ kandalāyamānairviśeṣairabhidhīyata iti kandaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

Means: In poetic composition when express the basic idea in its various forms thus it is called Kandaḥ types of haraṇa.

For an example:

viśikhāmukheṣu visarati puñjībhavatīva saudhaśikhare ṣu |
ku mudākare ṣu vikasati śaśikalaśaparistrutā jyotsnā || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

Another example with same meaning:

viyati visarpatīva ku mudeṣu bahubhavatīva yoṣitāṃ
  pratiphalatīva jaraṭhaśarakāṇḍapāṇḍu ṣu gaṇḍabhittiṣu
|
ambhāsi vikasatīva lasatīva sudhādhavaleṣu dhāmasu
  dhvajapaṭapallaveṣu lalatīva samīracaleṣu candrikā
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

And,

sphaṭikamaṇighaṭa ivendustasyāmapidhānamānanamivāṅkaḥ |
kṣarati ciraṃ tena yathā jyotsnā ghanasāradhūliriva || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

And also,

sitamaṇikalaśādindorhariṇaharittṛṇapidhānato galitaiḥ|
rajanibhujiṣyā siñcati nabho'ṅgaṇaṃ candrikāmbhobhiḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74

And,

saṃvidhātumabhiṣekamudāse manmathasya lasadaṃśujalaughaḥ |
yāminīvanitayā tatacihnaḥ sotpalo rajataku mbha ivenduḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 74-75

Here the idea expressed in the first ślokaviśikhāmukheṣu’ is enlarged by the later poets in the following ślokas. Thus it is an example for Kandaḥ haraṇa.

In this way Rājaśekhara enumerated and illustrated the eight types of Tulyadehitulya-artha-haraṇa.

For the adoptability of Tulyadehitulya-haraṇa Rājaśekhara quotes the words of Surānanda as:

so'yamullekhavānanugrāhyo mārgaḥ” iti surānandaḥ |

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XIII, Pp- 75

Means:

“This kind of borrowing as it reveals some kind of originally on the part of the borrowers.”

There after, all most following Ālaṃkārikas also considered it as an adoptable type of borrowing. Ānandavardhana in his Dhvanyāloka fully approves the adoptability of Tulyadehitulya. However he did not gives its any sub-types.

His advice to poets that they should not try to reject it, for it possesses a lovely body of its own, which is original.

C.f.

ātmano(tatvasyā)nyasya sadbhāve'nyasya pūrvasthityanuyāyyapi |
vastu bhātitarāṃ tanvyāḥ śaśicchāyamivānanam || ”

- Dhvanyāloka of Anandavardhana: Ch-IV/14

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