Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

तामिस्रमन्धतामिस्रं महारौरवरौरवौ ।
नरकं कालसूत्रं च महानरकमेव च ॥ ८८ ॥
सञ्जीवनं महावीचिं तपनं सम्प्रतापनम् ।
संहातं च सकाकोलं कुड्मलं प्रतिमूर्तिकम् ॥ ८९ ॥
लोहशङ्कुं ऋजीषं च पन्थानं शाल्मलीं नदीम् ।
असिपत्रवनं चैव लोहदारकमेव च ॥ ९० ॥

tāmisramandhatāmisraṃ mahārauravarauravau |
narakaṃ kālasūtraṃ ca mahānarakameva ca || 88 ||
sañjīvanaṃ mahāvīciṃ tapanaṃ sampratāpanam |
saṃhātaṃ ca sakākolaṃ kuḍmalaṃ pratimūrtikam || 89 ||
lohaśaṅkuṃ ṛjīṣaṃ ca panthānaṃ śālmalīṃ nadīm |
asipatravanaṃ caiva lohadārakameva ca || 90 ||

(1) Tāmisra, (2) Andhatāmisra, (3) Mahāraurava, (4) Raurava, (5) Kālasūtra-Naraka, (6) Mahānaraka, (7) Sañjīvana, (8) Mahāvīci, (9) Tāpana, (10) Sampatāpana, (11) Saṃhāta, (12) Sakākola, (13) Kuḍmala, (14) Pūtimṛttika, (15) Lohaśaṅku, (16) Ṛjīṣa, (17) Pathin, (18) Śālmalī, (19) Nadī, (20) Asipatravana and (21) Lohadāraka.—(88-90).


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

The meaning of these three verses is clear.—(88-90)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

(verses 4.88-90)

“A varied list is found in Yājñavalkya 3.222 et. seq., Viṣṇu 43.1 et. seq. Others occur in our text, 4.81, 4.197, 3.249, 12.76”.—Hopkins.

Nārāyaṇa takes ‘nadī’ as standing for the Vaitariṇī river; while Govindarāja takes it as by itsef forming the name of a particular hell. The Viṣṇupurāṇa has a hell named ‘Dīpanadī’.

All these three verses are quoted in Aparārka (p. 185);—and in Prāyaścittaviveka (p. 15), which adds the following explanation of the names:—

  1. Tāmisra,’ darkness,
  2. Andhatāmisra’, dense darkness,—
  3. Mahāraurava-Raurava’, abounding in hot sands,—
  4. Kālasūtra,’ resembling the potter’s cutting string,—
  5. Mahānaraka’, where all sorts of dire sufferings are gone through,—
  6. Sañjīvanam’, where one is repeatedly killed and brought to life,—
  7. Mahāvīci’, where large waves tumble about,—
  8. Tapana’, resembling flaming fire,—
  9. Sampratāpana’ is another name for the Kumbhīpāka,—
  10. Saṃhāta’ over-crowded,—
  11. Kākola’, where people are devoured by crows,—
  12. Kuḍmala,’ where there is whipping with cords,—
  13. Pūtimṛttikam’ where the earth smells like filth,—
  14. Lauhaśaṅku’, pricks like the needle,—
  15. Ṛjīṣa’, where rotten flour is thrown,—
  16. Panthā’, where one is constantly on the move,—
  17. Śālmala’, where people are pierced by thorns of the Śālmalī tree,—
  18. Nadī’, where one is washed away by such streams as the Vaitariṇī and the like—
  19. Lohacāraka,’ where there is chaining in irons.


Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 4.87-91)

See Comparative notes for Verse 4.87.

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