Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva (Study)

by Sajitha. A | 2018 | 50,171 words

This page relates ‘Tatpurusha-samasa (Compound)’ of the study on the Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva from the 11th century A.D. The Vasudevavijayam is an educational poem belonging to the Shastra-Kavya category of technical Sanskrit literature. The Vasudevavijayam depicts in 657 verses the story of Lord Krishna while also elucidates the grammatical rules of the Ashtadhyayi of Panini (teaching the science of grammar). The subject-content of the poem was taken from the tenth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.

Pāṇini devotes a large number of rules (about seventy two) for discussion of the structure, nature and meaning of tatpuruṣa. The rules for the formation of this compound spread over two pādas of the second chapter viz. 2.1.22 to 2.2.22. It indicates the wide range of its application and extent of domains under its authority. In Tatpuruṣa, it is the second member that has a prominent role. Tatpuruṣa has several varieties viz. Vibhaktitatpuruṣa, Dvigu, Karmadhāraya, Nañtatapuruṣa, Upapada tatpuruṣa, Prāditatpuruṣa etc. There are also some sub varieties to this compound such as Mayūravyaṃsakādi Samāsa, Rājadantādi samāsa etc.

When go through Vāsudevavijaya it can be found illustrations for all types of tatpuruṣas and almost all the rules.

The rules for illustration of tatpuruṣa are tatpuruṣaḥ (2/1/22) and dviguśca (2/1/25) and both these are clubbed in a single verse by Vāsudeva.

sa sahasragavaṃ pragetanaṃ tairaparāhṇetanamapyapāsya karma |
sahitaiḥ satataṃ vilāsinībhiḥ paśupālaiḥ samapāli bālako'sau ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 4.22)

Among these rules, tatpuruṣaḥ (2/1/22) is an Adhikārasūtra and it means from this aphorism as far as śeṣobahuvrīhiḥ (2/2/25), the word tatpuruṣa is the governing word. It is understood in all the following sūtras. The next rule dviguśca (2/1/24) implies the kind of compound called Dvigu (numeral determinate compound)is also called Tatpuruṣa. The example given for this is sahasragavam | The technical term Dvigu is defined as saṃkhyāpūrvo dviguḥ (2/1/52) which means, in a case where the sense is that of a taddhita affix (taddhitārtha) or when an additional member comes after the compound (uttarapade) or when an aggregate (samāhāre) is to be expressed, is a compound. Here the first number of this will be a numeral and it is called Dvigu. Here in the word sahasragavam there is an Uttarapada and also the first member is a numeral and hence it has the name Dvigu. So that according to the rule dviguśca it is a tatpuruṣa compound. This compound form has the benefits of both tatpurṣa and dvigu. The second rule allows the gender and number as neuter in singular, while the former allows the compound. The word sahasragavam means sahasrānāṃ gavāṃ samāhāraḥ | The alaukika vigraha is sahasra ām go ām | By the rule dviguśca, it is a tatpuruṣa samāsa, and the affixes are elided as per the rule supo dhātuprātipadikayoḥ | Then sahasrago, will be a pratipādika, as per the rule kṛttaddhitasamāsāśca and employs the affix sup, the form will be sahasragos and as per the rule gorataddhitaluki, there have a Samāsānta affix ṭac in which the a only remains. sahasrago a s | Then as per the rule eco'yavāyāvaḥ, the o will substituted by av and the form will be sahasragav a s | The rules dvigurekavacanam and sa napuṃsakam will act here and thus the compound dvigu will be singular in number and in Napumsaka (neuter). So in this derivation, the s will be substituted by am as per the rule ato'm | Then acts the rule ami pūrvaḥ and there comes the Pūrvarūpa. Thus the form will be sahasragavam |

Next, the Vibhaktitatpuruṣa is illustrated. The rule dvitīyā śritātītapatitagatātyastaprāptāpannaiḥ (2/1/24) is illustrated in the verse:-

prahitāribhayaśritena bhojaprabhuṇā''dāyacarī niśāṭapāśā |
kadane'nupalāṣiṇī śiśūnāṃ vrajamāṭāṭyata pūtanā'tiśikṣuḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 4.23)

Here bhayaśritaḥ is the example given for the rule. According to this rule, a word ending with the second case-affix is compounded with the words śrita ‘who has had recourse to’, atīta gone by, patita who has fallen upon, gata who has gone to, atyasta who has passed, prāpta who has obtained and āpanna who has reached, and the resulting compound is called Tatpuruṣa.

The derivation of the word bhayaśrita is—

bhayaṃ śritaḥ bhayaśritaḥ |
bhaya am śrita su dvitīyāśritātīta. (tatpuruṣasamāsam)
bhaya śrita supo dhātupratipādikayoḥ (elision of affix sup)
kuttaddhitasamāsāśca
bhaya śrita s ← (Prātipadika) svajasamauṭ (su)
bhaya śrita r sasajuṣo ruḥ (r for s)
bhayaśritaḥ | kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ | (Visarga for r)


After this almost all rules of dvitīya tatpurṣa has illustrated, they and all of them are recorded in the appendix. Likewise all other vibhakti tatpuruṣa rules are illustrated.

For Tṛtīyā tatpuruṣasamāsa, Vāsudeva composes the verse,

agarājasamaṃ bakānujāyāḥ krakacacchedapṛthakkṛtorubandham |
paśupāḥ śramiṇo'gnaye viteruḥ paraśucchātabhujāṅghrikaṃ śarīram ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 4.35)

The rule tṛtīyā tukṛtārthena guṇavacanena is exemplified in the verse, and the word krakacacchedaḥ is instance given or the same. A word ending with the third case affix is optionally compounded with what denotes quality, the qualify being that which is instrumentally cased by the thing signified by what ends with the third case affix and with the word artha wealth and the compound. So formed is called Tatpuruṣa.

krakacena chedaḥ krakacachedaḥ
krakaca ṭā cheda s tṛtīyā tatkṛtārthena guṇavacanena (tatpuruṣasamāsaḥ)
krakaca cheda supo dhātu prātipadikayoḥ (subluk)
kṛttaddhitasamāsaśca(pratipadikatvaṃ)
krakacacheda s svaujasamauṭ (supratyayaḥ)
krakacacheda r sasajuṣo ruḥ (r for s)
krakacachedaḥ kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ | (Visarga for r)


The same verse holds the examples for two rules also they are pūrvasadṛśasamonārthakalahanipuṇamiśraślakṣaṇaiḥ (2/1/31) and kartṛkaraṇe kṛtā bahulam (2/1/32) agarājasamam and paraśucchātaṃ are respective example for these rules.

The rule for Caturthītatpuruṣa i.e. caturthī tadarthārthabalihitasukharakṣitaiḥ (2/1/36) is illustrated in the verse,

prathamo viduṣāṃ kadāpi nandastanayasyābhyudayārthamāptayatnaḥ |
adhirokṣyati pūṣṇi pūrvaśailaṃ vyajahāt svāpamabhaṅgurāstikatvaḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 4.44)

A word ending with the fourth case -affix is compounded with what denotes that which is for the purpose of what ends with the fourth case affix, and so, too with the words artha 'on account of', bali 'a sacrifice', hita 'salutary', sukha 'pleasure' and rakṣita 'kept' and the compound is called tatpuruṣa. Here in the verse, the example for the Sūtra is abhyudayārtham

abhyudayāya idam abhyudayārtham
abhyudaya ṅe artha s caturthī tadarthārthabalihitasukharakṣitaiḥ (Tatpuruṣa samāsa)
abhyudayārtha s kṛttaddhitasamāsāśca (pratipadikatvaṃ)
svaujasamauṭ ......... (sup)
abhyudayārtha am ato'm (am for s)
abhyudayārtham || ami pūrvaḥ (pūrvarūpaḥ)


The rule pañcamībhayena (2/1/37), which means a word ending with the fifth case-affix is optionally compounded with the word bhayafear' is exemplified in the verse

savidhaṃ yati pūṣaṇīddharāge gatamandehabhaye kṣaṇādavācīm |
svarucā haridākṣipat pratīcīmapi sā māghavatīdiśāmudīcīm ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 4.47)

Mandehabhayaṃ is the example given for this rule.

mandehebhyo bhayam -mandehamayam |
mandeha bhyas bhaya s pañcamī bhayena (Tatpuruṣasamāsa)
mandehabhaya supo dhātupratipādikayoḥ (subluk)
mandehabhaya s kṛttaddhitasamāsāśca (pratipadikatvaṃ)
svaujasamauṭ ......... (sup)
mandehabhaya am ato'm (am for s)
mandehabhayam | ami pūrvaḥ (pūrvarūpaḥ)


The rule for Ṣaṣthītatpuruṣa is ṣaṣṭhī (2/2/8), and it means a word ending with a sixth case affix is compounded with a case-inflected word with which it is in construction.

The rule is illustrated in the verse,

vākyairakṛtrimarasaiḥ praṇayena nandamebhiḥ pratoṣya sa sahāyudhikā gavīnam |
īṣat paṭuskhalananaikaṭikaiṇapotaṃ yogāya yogyahṛdṛṣiḥ svakuṭīramāṭīt ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.8)

The example given for the rule is svakuṭīram |

svasya kuṭīram svakuṭīram |
sva ṅas kuṭīra s ṣaṣṭhī (Tatpuruṣasamāsa)
svakuṭīra supo dhātupratipādikayoḥ (subluk)
svakuṭīra s kṛttaddhitasamāsaśca (pratipadikatvaṃ)
svaujasamauṭ ......... (sup)
svakuṭīra am ato'm (am for s)
sakuṭīram | ami pūrvaḥ (pūrvarūpaḥ)


In the some verse, the example for the rule nañ is also included the negative word is nañ compounded with a case inflected word with which it is in construction.

In the above quoted verse, the example given for this rule is akṛtrimam |

na kṛtrimam akṛtrimam |
na kṛtrima s nañ (Tatpuruṣasamāsa)
na kṛtrima supo dhātupratipādikayoḥ (subluk)
na kṛtrima s kṛttaddhitasamāsaśca (pratipadikatvaṃ)
svaujasamauṭ ......... (sup)
akṛtrima s nalaupo nañaḥ (elision of n of the negative particle nañ)
akṛtrima am ato'm
akṛtrimam ami pūrvaḥ


For Saptamītatpuruṣa, Vāsudeva composes the verse:—

puruṣaṃ yamuśanti pañcaviṃśaṃ kṛtino'naśvaramādyamātmajasya |
udayārthamamuṣya tāṃ pitā'pat varivasyākuśalaiḥ sahātmavargyaiḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 4.49)

The example is varivasyākuśalaḥ | A word ending with the seventh case -affix is compounded with the words śauṇḍa 'skilled' etc. and the compound is tatpuruṣa. In this example, the word 'kuśala' is one among the śauṇḍādigaṇa and thus it can be compounded as per the rule.

varivasyā ṅi kuśala s saptamī śauṇḍaiḥ (Tatpuruṣa samāsa)
varivasyākuśala supo dhātupratipādikayoḥ
varivasyakuśala s svaujasamauṭ ......... (sup)
varivasyakuśalar sasajuṣo ruḥ(r for s)
varivasyākuśalaḥ | kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ (visarga for r)


In the same manner, there are so many examples are given for the rules regarding compounds. Almost all the Sūtras are included. The rules and their examples given in Vāsudevavijaya are recorded in a table which is given as appendix.

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