Kritya, Kṛtya: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Kritya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṛtya can be transliterated into English as Krtya or Kritya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Kraty.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kṛtya (कृत्य).—lit. that which should be done; the word कृत्य (kṛtya) is used as a tech nical term in grammar in the sense of kṛt affixes which possess the sense 'should be done'. Pāṇini has not defined the term कृत्य (kṛtya) but he has introduced a topic (अधिकार (adhikāra)) by the name कृत्य (kṛtya) (P. III.1.95), and mentioned kṛt afixes therein which are to be called कृत्य (kṛtya) right on upto the mention of the affix ण्वुल् (ṇvul). in P.III. 1.133; cf. कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः (kṛtyāḥ prāṅ ṇvulaḥ) P. III. 1.95 The kṛtya affixes, commonly found in use, are तव्य, अनीय (tavya, anīya) and य (ya) (यत्, क्यप् (yat, kyap) and ण्यत् (ṇyat)).

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kṛtyā (कृत्या).—(KṚTYAKĀ) I. A Rākṣasī who is born when the black arts as enunciated in the Atharvaveda are practised to annihilate enemies. Kṛtyā may appear in male form too. Some of the activities of Kṛtyā are given below. Carried off Duryodhana. While the Pāṇḍavas were living in exile in the forest, Duryodhana and others went in a procession to the forest. Though Duryodhana was taken into captivity in the forest by a Gandharva, Arjuna saved him out of fraternal consideration for him. Duryodhana returned to Hastināpura. Now the question was whether half of the kingdom should be given to the Pāṇḍavas or not. Śakuni and others advised Duryodhana to give it, but the latter remained adamant against it. Dhṛtarāṣṭra decided to end his life and for the purpose spread darbha grass on earth and sat thereon. The Asuras heard about these developments and created a Kṛtyā by mantras. The Kṛtyā took Duryodhana to Pātāla where the Asuras advised him against any compromise with the Pāṇḍavas. On the other hand they wanted him to intensify his hatred against the Pāṇḍavas, and they assured him all support. After that Kṛtyā took Duryodhana back to Hastināpura. (Vana Parva, Chapter 252). (See full article at Story of Kṛtyā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Kṛtyā (कृत्या).—A river. Indians used to drink water from this river. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9 Verse 18).

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kṛtyā (कृत्या) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.17). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kṛtyā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Kṛtyā (कृत्या) refers to “(the treatment of) supernatural power produced from mantras”, and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs. It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases (viz., Kṛtyā).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (vedas)

Kṛtyā (कृत्या) refers to “sorcery”.—In order to counter the sorcery (kṛtyā) of someone who wishes evil for the bride, a purifying bath is prescribed as part of the Vedic marriage rites (Atharvaveda 14.2.65). The couple recite the following verse while looking at the red and blue evening sky in order to propitiate the goddess Kṛtyā:—“Her hue is blue and red: the fiend (kṛtyā) who clingeth close is driven off. Well thrive the kinsmen of this bride: the husband is bound first in bonds”.—(cf. Ṛgveda 10.85.28 = Atharvaveda 14.1.26).

Note: The Vedic goddess Kṛtyā, the embodiment of sorcery, is said to be this colour [i.e., dark (red and blue) like ‘blue collyrium’], reflecting that of the cloth that has been soiled by the bride on the night of the consummation of her marriage. — On the morning after the garbhādhāna ceremony, which is performed on the fourth day after marriage, the cloth worn by the bride, which has been soiled by the nuptial consummation, is given over to the priest. Indeed, the red and blue blood spots on the cloth are regarded as representing Kṛtyā and hence as inauspicious. The garment, which is called śāmulya, is supposed to be extremely ominous if retained in the house. It becomes a walking Kṛtyā and associates herself with the husband thereby bringing all disasters upon him

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Kṛtya (कृत्य) refers to “role”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]—[...] (4). The Buddha has no notion of variety.—[...] Furthermore, it is said in the Sarvadharmāpravṛttinirdeśa: ‘The Buddha considers all beings as his own self, as having fulfilled their role (kṛtya) and having neither beginning, middle or end’. That is why he has no notion of variety.. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kṛtya (कृत्य) refers to “that which is proper to be done”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Fool, do you not perceive the transitory behaviour of the whole world? You must do what is proper to be done (kṛtyakuru kṛtyaṃ). You must not deceive yourself by amusing yourself with false knowledge”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṛtya (कृत्य).—n (S) An act, action, deed, fact. 2 A problem.

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kṛtyā (कृत्या).—f (S) A female deity to whom sacrifices are offered for destructive and magical purposes. Hence applied to a clamorous and quarrelsome woman; a vixen, scold, virago.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṛtya (कृत्य).—n An act, action, deed. A problem.

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kṛtyā (कृत्या).—f A female deity to whom sacri- fices are offered for destructive or magical purposes. Hence applied to a clamorous and quarrelsome woman, a vixen, scold, virago.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṛtya (कृत्य).—a. [kṛ-kyap; cf. P.III.1.12]

1) What should or ought to be done, right, proper, fit; साधु पर्याप्तमेता- वत्कृत्यश्चारित्रसंग्रहः (sādhu paryāptametā- vatkṛtyaścāritrasaṃgrahaḥ) Rām.7.13.18.

2) Feasible, practicable.

3) One who may be seduced from allegiance, treacherous; Rāj. T.5.247.

-tyam 1 What ought to be done, duty, (itikṛtya) function; Manusmṛti 2.237;7.67.

2) Work, business, deed, commission; बन्धुकृत्यम् (bandhukṛtyam) Meghadūta 116; अन्योन्यकृत्यैः (anyonyakṛtyaiḥ) Ś.7.34.

3) Purpose, object, end; कूजद्भि- रापादितवंशकृत्यम् (kūjadbhi- rāpāditavaṃśakṛtyam) R.2.12; Kumārasambhava 4.15.

4) Motive, cause; किमागमनकृत्यं ते देवगन्धर्वसेवित (kimāgamanakṛtyaṃ te devagandharvasevita) Rām.7.21.4.

-tyaḥ A class of affixes used to form potential (future) passive participle; these are तव्य, अनीय, य (tavya, anīya, ya) and also एलिम (elima).

-tyā 1 Action, deed.

2) Magic.

3) A female deity to whom sacrifices are offered for destructive and magical purposes; परं यत्नमकरोद्यो मे पापकृत्यां शमयेदिति (paraṃ yatnamakarodyo me pāpakṛtyāṃ śamayediti) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.31.11.

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Kṛtya (कृत्य).—(from kṛnt) An instrument of an architect; अन्येषु शिल्पेषु च यान्यपि स्युः सर्वाणि कृत्यान्यखिलेन तत्र (anyeṣu śilpeṣu ca yānyapi syuḥ sarvāṇi kṛtyānyakhilena tatra) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.194.6.

Derivable forms: kṛtyam (कृत्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṛtya (कृत्य).—(1) m., a kind of demon (compare Sanskrit kṛtyā, of which this may be a masc. correspondent created for the nonce, in this passage which is a list of masc. evil spirits): Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 401.5—6 kṛtyo vā vetāḍo vā…(6) yakṣakṛtyo vāmanu- ṣyakṛtyo vā manuṣyakṛtyo vā; (2) nt., or at end of adj. cpds., business etc., in some cases apparently transcending normal Sanskrit usage; bhakta-kṛtya (= Pali bhatta-kicca), lit. business of food, so a meal: Divyāvadāna 185.22 °tyaṃ kartum ārabdhaḥ; āhāra-kṛtya, id., Divyāvadāna 82.26 nānenāhāreṇāhāra- kṛtyaṃ kariṣyati, he will not make his meal(s) on this food, i.e. live on this alone; Divyāvadāna 236.6, text āhāraṃ (read °ra-?) kṛtyaṃ kuru, get your sustenance; according to Senart, note on Mahāvastu i.349.18 (p. 622), used like the Prakrit quasi- suffix -kera(ka) as substantial equivalent of gen. case- ending (Prakrit -kera is to be derived from Sanskrit kārya with Pischel 176; see -keraka); Senart's Index further inter- prets -kṛtye ii.97.13 as ‘periphrasis for instrumental’, but this is certainly wrong, since there gītakṛtye pramattā jaladardarake ca clearly means careless in their occupation with singing and the (musical instrument) jaladardaraka; the cases where -kṛtya is alleged to be a ‘periphrasis for the gen.’ are also, in some cases, doubtful; in Mahāvastu i.349.18 and 350.1 Senart rāja-kṛtyā kośāto, supposedly = from the king's treasury, but the mss. read rāja-kṛto or (v.l. in 349.18) °kṛtāto, and the latter, at least, could be inter- preted (the treasury made by the king); ii.95.4 rājakṛtyato (abl.; v.l. °tāṃ) odhṛtabhāro, having laid down the burden of (lit. from, away from) royal duty; in ii.446.14 rājakṛtye siṃhāsane rājeti kṛtva (°tvä?) upaviśāpito, he (who was actually not the king) was caused to sit upon the throne which was appropriate (really belonged) to the king; ii.478.10 rājakṛtye (v.l. °kṛte) mahānase, and 12 rājakṛtyehi sūpehi, as in prec.; Senart's interpretation may however be substantially correct in the last three, and in ii.113.9 rājakṛtyaṃ udyānaṃ, the park that belonged to the king. Since Sanskrit kṛtya is in fact a synonym of kārya in some of its uses, the comparison with Prakrit -kera(ka), from Sanskrit kārya, is apposite. But the two alleged parallels from Lalitavistara cited by Senart in his note, above, are not sound; one rests on a false reading of the Calcutta ed., and the other is to be interpreted otherwise. (3) -kṛtya, -kṛtyaṃ, = -kṛtvā for Sanskrit -kṛtvas, q.v.

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Kṛtyā (कृत्या) or Kṛtvā.—(-kṛtyā, -kṛtvā) for Sanskrit -kṛtvas, q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtya (कृत्य).—mfn.

(-tyaḥ-tyā-tyaṃ) 1. To be done or performed. 2. To be rendered murderous or mischievous, hired as an assassin, seduced from allegiance or alliance, hostile through covetousness, &c. f.

(-tyā) 1. Action, act. 2. A female deity, to whom sacrifices are offered for destructive and magical purposes. 3. Magic. 4. A pestilence. n.

(-tyaṃ) 1. Motive, cause. 2. The class of affixes in grammar forming nouns corresponding to gerunds and supines, chiefly with a passive signification, but sometimes active, and sometimes abstract nouns. E. kṛt, to injure, to divide &c. kyap or yat affixed, or kṛt, to injure, vun affix, and ya inserted.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtya (कृत्य).—[kṛ + tya], I. ptcple. of the fut. pass. of kṛ. 1. To be done or performed, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 60, 27. 2. Seducible, bribable, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 247. Ii. n. 1. Right, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 309. 2. Need, with instr., e. g. na me jīvitena kṛtyam, I do not want (or wish) to live, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 154, 3. 3. Duty, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 237. 4. Service, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 193. guṇa-kṛtye niyojitā, is used to serve as a string, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 4, 15. 5. Business, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 47, 15. 6. motive, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 33, 18. Iii. f. . 1. Causing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 67. 2. Act, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 125. 3. Charm, witchery, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 290.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtya (कृत्य).—[adjective] to be done, fit, proper, right; [neuter] [impersonally] it imports or matters ([with] [genetive] of [person or personal] & [instrumental] of th.). —[masculine] a suffix of the [future] pass. [particle] [feminine] kṛtyā act, action, deed; magic, spell. [neuter] business, task, duty, purpose, end.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṛtya (कृत्य):—[from kṛ] mfn. ‘to be done or performed’

2) [from kṛ] mfn. practicable, feasible, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] right, proper to be done, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] one who may be seduced from allegiance or alliance, who may be bribed or hired (as an assassin), [Rājataraṅgiṇī v, 247]

5) [v.s. ...] (in med.) to be treated or attended with (in [compound]), [Suśruta]

6) [v.s. ...] m. ([scilicet] pratyaya) the class of affixes forming the [future] p. [Passive voice] (as tavya, anīya, ya, elima, etc.), [Pāṇini]

7) [v.s. ...] a kind of evil spirit (named either with or without the addition of yakṣa, mānuṣa, asura, etc.), [Buddhist literature] (perhaps [varia lectio] for tyā below)

8) Kṛtyā (कृत्या):—[from kṛtya > kṛ] a f. ([Pāṇini 3-3, 100]) action, act, deed, performance, achievement, [Atharva-veda v, 9, 8; Manu-smṛti xi, 125; Mahābhārata xii, 3837]

9) [v.s. ...] (with [genitive case] rujas) ill usage or treatment, [Manu-smṛti xi, 67]

10) [v.s. ...] magic, enchantment, [Atharva-veda] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] (especially personified) a kind of female evil spirit or sorceress, [Ṛg-veda x, 85, 28 & 29; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc.

12) [v.s. ...] a female deity to whom sacrifices are offered for destructive and magical purposes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Mahābhārata vi, 9, 18]

14) Kṛtya (कृत्य):—[from kṛ] n. what ought to be done, what is proper or fit, duty, office, [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] action, business, performance, service, [Śakuntalā; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha] etc.

16) [v.s. ...] purpose, end, object, motive, cause, [Mahābhārata etc.]

17) Kṛtyā (कृत्या):—[from kṛ] b f. of kṛtya q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtya (कृत्य):—(tyaṃ) 1. n. Motive, cause; (in Gram.) an affix. f. (tyā) An action; magic; penitence. a. Performable; hired for mischief.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṛtya (कृत्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kacca, Kicca, Kiccā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kritya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kṛtya (कृत्य) [Also spelled kraty]:—(nm) performance; duty; function.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṛtya (ಕೃತ್ಯ):—[noun] a tāntric worship of a deity with an intention of achieving an evil supernatural power over people and their affairs; witchcraft; black magic; sorcery.

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Kṛtya (ಕೃತ್ಯ):—[adjective] what should or ought to be done; that is proper to be done.

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Kṛtya (ಕೃತ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] that which is done; a work; consequence of an action.

2) [noun] that which is ought to be done; duty.

3) [noun] the quality, state or instance of being loyal; faithfulness or faithful adherence.

4) [noun] one who betrays another’s trust; a betrayer.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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