Cosmetics, Costumes and Ornaments in Ancient India

by Remadevi. O. | 2009 | 54,177 words

This page relates ‘Various other Leg Ornaments’ of the study on cosmetics, costumes and ornaments of ancient India based on Sanskrit sources. Chapter one deals with cosmetics and methods of enhancing beauty; Chapter two deals with costumes, garments and dresses; Chapter three deals with ornaments for humans and animals. Each chapter deals with their respective materials, types, preparation and trade, as prevalent in ancient Indian society.

2.8. Various other Leg Ornaments

Khādi, Hiraṇyapāvā, Haṃsaka, Sāṅkala, Kiṅkiṇī, Kiṅkiṇika, Mañjīra, Paṭṭahārabandha, Maṇibandha, Neyūra, Kara, Ghaṇṭhikā, Ratnajālaka, Kaṭaka, Pādapatra, Ūrubandha and Pādajāla are some other names of anklets.

All these are meant for ladies, with the exception of Pādapatra and Maṇibandha. Khādi and Hiraṇyapāva are anklets of Vedic period[1]. Because of its pleasing sound, Haṃsaka is considered favourite to Haṃsa. Sāṅkala is the name given to anklet of Śiva[2]. Kiṅkiṇī as its name indicates is one attached with small bells. Kiṅkiṇika was sometimes bejeweled. Mañjīra also was studded with Marakata. Paṭṭahārabandha and Maṇibandha are seen in the images of Śiva and Viṣṇu respectively[3], where the former is seen with the dancing posture of Śiva. Neyūra was of gold as well as jewels.

Pādamudrikā and Pādāṅgulīyaka were examples for toe rings.

In addition to the above mentioned types of ornaments, we have references to a lot of ornaments, the exact purpose of which are not specified. However we get some idea of the shapes of some from their names. Similarly the colour of jewels used in their making can be inferred from the examples.

Some of such varieties are–Ardhacandra, Udīcyaveśa, Candra, Śaśi, Raktāśokanikāśam [Raktāśokanikāśa], Catussaram [Catussara], Aṣṭāśrī, Jālormīnibham [Jālormīnibha], Vṛttam [Vṛtta], Rathacakrābham [Rathacakrābha], Analajvālāsaṅkāśam [Analajvālāsaṅkāśa], Sarojasaṅkāśam [Sarojasaṅkāśa], Udvaṃsam [Udvaṃsa], Nīlotpalābhāsam [Nīlotpalābhāsa], Niveśam [Niveśa] etc[4].

Footnotes and references:


Ṛgveda, IX.86, 43


Mahiṣāsuramarddinī, pp.1087


Sakalādhikāra, p.22


Bṛhatsaṃhitā, XLII.42-48

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