Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh (early history)

by Prakash Narayan | 2011 | 63,517 words

This study deals with the history of Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh (Northern India) taking into account the history and philosophy of Buddhism. Since the sixth century B.C. many developments took place in these regions, in terms of society, economic life, religion and arts and crafts....

The gahapati’s style of addressing in conversation with his sons, his friends and relatives and employees are given below. The young men of the family (Kulaputta such as Ratthapala and sudinna, after they have become monks, address their fathers as gahapati, while the latter still retain the mode of address tata for the sons.[1] However, Dighavu, though still only an upasaka, addresses his father Jotipala as gahapati.[2] The wives of the gahapati also address their husband as gahapati. Thus Nakula’s mother addresses Nakula’s father as gahapati.[3] Gahapati Citta is sick, stricken with a sore disease and his friends, acquaintances and agnates (mittamacca natisalohita) come to see him. At their request gahapati citta instructs them with the Buddha’s teachings. Throughout the conversation, the friends, acquaintances and agnates use the term ayyaputta to address him, and not gahapati.[4]

The gahapatis’ employees addressed him as bhante. Thus gahapati sirivaddha instructs a certain man (annatara puriso) to deliver a message to ananda. He addresses the messenger as ambho purisa, and in turn is addressed as bhante gahapati.[5] Upali’s doorkeeper addresses him as bhante.[6]

Footnotes and references:


Majjhima Nikaya.II.62; Vinaya.III.17.


Anguttara Nikaya.III.296-97.


Samyutta Nikaya.IV.303.


Ibid., V.380.


Majjhima Nikaya.I.380.

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