Jivanandana of Anandaraya Makhin (Study)

by G. D. Jayalakshmi | 2019 | 58,344 words

This page relates ‘Analysis of Natyoktis’ of the study on the Jivanandana (in English) which is a dramatic play written by Anadaraya Makhin in the 18th century. The Jivanandana praises the excellence of Advaita Vedanta, Ayurveda (medical science) and Dramatic literature as the triple agency for obtaining everlasting bliss.

These are certain stage conventions that are to be followed when certain activities are not to be presented directly to the audience; they have to be inferred by them. Ānandarāya Makhin implements the following stage conventions in this play wherever necessary.

(i) Ākāśabhāṣaṇa:

A person looking up at the sky at a distance speaks when he is supposed to speak to the character very far away or not on the stage. And a dialogue can be managed by imagining replies.

This Ākāśabhāṣaṇa is found in many places in the drama such as–

(1) II. 30/31 (p.12)–Pāṇḍu on hearing the plans of minister Vijñāna, looks at the sky, as though seeing him, and declares that he (Pāṇḍu) would definitely destroy his (Vijñāna Śarmā’s) plans.

(2) III. 13/14 (p.144)–when Vijñāna in his turn vows to outwit the preparations of Pāṇḍu.

(3) V. 41–when Rājayakṣmā declares that he would destroy Vijñāna Śarmā along with Jīva who depends on his guidance.

(ii) Ātmagata (Svagata):

When a character, because of extreme joy, fear, worry and other intense feelings speaks out what is in his or her mind aloud without other’s, knowledge, it is called ātmagatam. This is nothing but loud thinking. This is found throught out the play.

(iii) Apavārita:

This refers to something which is to be concealed from other characters. This in fact is a talk in confidence.

This is found used only once in the play when Pāṇḍu talks to Apathyathā confidentially so that the near by characters may not hear his words (V.25/26; p.274):

pāṇḍuḥ-(āpathyatāṃ prati āpavārya) āyi, tvaṃ kvacinmahati rahasye rājakārye niyojayitavyāsi |

(iv) Janāntika:

When persons standing close to each other whisper to one another so that others nearby may not (be able to) hear it. Also, when something already mentioned is to be repeated, whispering into the ear is the way to do it.

In the play Jīvānandana Nāṭaka there are many instances when some secrets are passed from one character to another by speaking in the ears, such as–

(i) I.38/39 (p.46): minister Vijñāna Śarmā tells into the ears of king Jīva the secret information brought by Dhāraṇā saying–evam, evam.

The stage direction here says–karṇe: mantrī–(karṇe) evamevam |

(ii) II. 40/41 (p.123): Kāsa informs the orders of Yakṣmā to Pāṇḍu only in his ears, with his hand covering the mouth:

kāsaḥ–(karapihitamukhaḥ |
karṇepha evamiva |

(iii) V end (after v.42): As Yakṣmā and Pāṇḍu think about how to thwart Vijñāna Śarmā’s efforts, Yakṣmā enquires about the special method thought of by Pāṇḍu. And Pāṇḍu replies in his ears, which is appreciated by Yakṣmā:

pāṇḍuḥ–(karṇe) evamiva |
rājayakṣmā–bhavatu tathā |

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: