Mantri, Mantrin, Mantrī, Mamtri, Mantrī: 33 definitions
Mantri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्, “minister”) refers to a classification of persons who “move about in public”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “those who are high-born, intelligent, well-versed in Śruti and polity, fellow-countrymen of the king, devoted to him, free from guile (lit. pure) and followers of Dharma, should be chaplains (purodha) and ministers (mantrin), for these qualities of them”.
Note: B. reads the passage differently. In translation it is as follows: “Those who are high-born, intelligent, well-versed in various Śāstras, affectionate to the king, incorruptible by enemies, not haughty, the compatriot of the king, free from greed, disciplined, trust-worthy, and virtuous are to be made chaplains (purodha) and ministers (mantrin).” The taking together of the chaplain and the minister probably shows that at one time the same person discharged the functions of the two.
Note: Saciva as well as amātya originally meant secretary. Amātya also has been used before to indicate a minister. But Arthaśāstra. (1.8.9) distinguishes between amātya and mantrin. Kāmandakīya Nītisāra (VIII.1) also does the same. According to the latter amātya seems to be identical with saciva (see IV. 25, 30, 31). According to Śukranīti saciva, amātya and mantrin are three different functionaries (See II. 94, 95 and 103). The Rudradāman inscription seems to distinguish between mantrin and saciva.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
The Ministers (mantri)—Those who shine as royal ministers are men of their word, discerners of good qualities, wealthy, famed, learned in mood (bhāva), knowing good from evil, fain of the flavour of love, impartial, well-conducted, of good will, learned, devoted servants of the king, and men of culture.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Mantri (मन्त्रि).—A Vānara chief.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 238.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्) refers to “one who recites mantra”, according to the Brahmayāmala verse 2.1-2.—Accordingly, “If the one who recites mantra [i.e., mantrin] is Still (nirācāra) and abides within the body of an avadhūta, he then performs the yogic rite of adoration of Śiva. Avadhūtā is that energy (he possesses) and the one who is Still is Śiva”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्) refers to “ministers” (working for the king), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must be able to interpret the language and gestures of fighting men and the like; he must be learned in the Ṣaḍguṇa and Upāya policies; he must be able to predict the success or failure of an undertaking; he must be able to interpret omens; he must have a knowledge of favourable halting places for the king’s army; he must be able to interpret the colour of ceremonial fires; he must know when to employ the ministers [i.e., mantrin], spies, messengers and forest men; he must be able to give directions touching the captures of the enemy’s fortress”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
1) Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्) refers to “one who recites mantras” [?], as quoted by Hṛdayaśiva in his Prāyaścittasamuccaya (verse 10.27-35).—Accordingly, “[...] Dressed in white, with a white turban and a white sacred thread and white unguents and garland, he should perform the observance for the vidyādhipa-mantra. Dressed in red garments and red garlands and unguents the Mantrin should first perform for one month the stated observance for the brahmaśiras. [...]”.
2) Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्) refers to a “mantra master”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—In a hidden sanctuary, the mantra master (mantrin) should sit on a soft cushion and should visualise himself as having the body of Parameśvara, as if [he were transformed into] Kāmeśvara, having no beginning and no end, shining like millions of suns. [...] ”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्) refers to the “ministers (of a king)”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 19.54.—Accordingly: “The ministers (mantrin) joined by the chaplain who knew the last rites placed him on the pyre in secret in the palace garden, under the pretext of a ceremony that averts disease”.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्) refers to “ministers”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “This Mantra and Yantra are prescribed for Kings alone. Oh Nārada, the collections of mantras serve all general purposes. If the Earth-Master’s ministers (mantrin) are engaged in this worship, they protect the King even in the presence of bad omens [indicating that his life is in danger]”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Mantrī (मन्त्री) or Mantriṇī is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Mantra forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Mantrī] and Vīras are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geographySource: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
Mantrin (counsellor) was a title used in the administration during the rule of the Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1215 A.D.).—The king appointed Counsellors (mantrins) and Ministers (mahāmātyas) for the various departments. Their names together with their official designations occur in several records of the Northern Śilāhāras and prove useful in chronological discussions. In North Koṅkaṇ the ministers were generally five in number.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Mantrin.—(EI 12, 25; CII 4; BL; HD), a minister or coun- cillor; a counsellor; an executive officer. See Arthaśāstra, I. 80; Yājñavalkyasmṛti, I. 312; Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 305. (IE 8-3), explained as vyavahāra-draṣṭṛ. Cf. Mahāmantrin. (IE 8-3), in one case, the Mantrin later became a Mahā- balādhikṛta; in another case, also a Kumārāmātya. Note: mantrin is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Mantrī (मन्त्री).—m (S) A king's counselor or minister: also a counselor or an adviser in general. 2 A certain one of the eight ministers attendant upon a king. See aṣṭapradhāna. 3 One that can use charms or spells.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Mantrī (मन्त्री).—m A king's minister. A counsellor. A magician.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Mantṛ (मन्तृ).—m. A sage, wise man, an adviser or counsellor.
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Mantri (मन्त्रि).—= मन्त्रिन् (mantrin) q. v.
Derivable forms: mantriḥ (मन्त्रिः).
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Mantr (मन्त्र्).—1 Ā. (mantrayate, but sometimes mantrayati also, mantrita)
1) To consult, deliberate, ponder over, hold consultation, take counsel; एतान् सर्वान् समानीय मन्त्रयित्वा च लक्ष्मण (etān sarvān samānīya mantrayitvā ca lakṣmaṇa) Rām.7.91.3; न हि स्त्रीभिः सह मन्त्रयितुं युज्यते (na hi strībhiḥ saha mantrayituṃ yujyate) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5; Manusmṛti 7.146.
2) To advise, counsel, give advice; युद्धे विक्रमतश्चैव हितं मन्त्रयतस्तथा (yuddhe vikramataścaiva hitaṃ mantrayatastathā) Rām.6.115.8; अतीतलाभस्य च रक्षणार्थं (atītalābhasya ca rakṣaṇārthaṃ) ...... यन्मन्त्र्यतेऽसौ परमो हि मन्त्रः (yanmantryate'sau paramo hi mantraḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.182.
3) To consecrate with sacred texts, enchant with spells or charms.
4) To say, speak, talk, mutter; किमपि हृदये कृत्वा मन्त्रयेथे (kimapi hṛdaye kṛtvā mantrayethe) Ś.1; किमेकाकिनी मन्त्रयसि (kimekākinī mantrayasi) Ś.6; हला संगीतशाला- परिसरेऽवलोकिताद्वितीया त्वं किं मन्त्रयन्त्यासीः (halā saṃgītaśālā- parisare'valokitādvitīyā tvaṃ kiṃ mantrayantyāsīḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 2.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mantṛ (मन्तृ):—[from man] m. a thinker, adviser, counsellor, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata]
2) [v.s. ...] one who consents or agrees, [Āpastamba] cf. [Greek] Μέντωρ.
3) Mantri (मन्त्रि):—[from man] 1. mantri m. = mantrin, a king’s counsellor, minister (only [accusative] [plural] trīn), [Rāmāyaṇa]
4) [v.s. ...] 2. mantri in [compound] for mantrin.
5) Mantr (मन्त्र्):—(properly a [Nominal verb] [from] mantra, p. 785, col. 3), [class] 10. [Ātmanepada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxxiii, 6]) mantrayate (rarely [Parasmaipada] ti; [subjunctive] mantrayaithe, te, [Pāṇini 3-4, 95 [Scholiast or Commentator]]; [Potential] mantrayīta, [Mahābhārata]; [infinitive mood] mantrayitum, [Pañcatantra]),
—to speak, talk, say, [Ṛg-veda i, 164, 10];
—to deliberate, take counsel, consult with ([instrumental case] with or without saha) or about ([dative case]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.;
—to resolve upon, determine to ([infinitive mood]), [Mahābhārata];
—to deliberate on, discuss ([accusative]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;
—to counsel, advise, propose any measure, give any one advice (with [accusative] of [person], or with [genitive case] of [person] and [accusative] of thing), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;
—to consecrate with sacred or magical texts, enchant with spells or charms, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Maṃti.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्):—(ntrī) 5. m. A counsellor.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mantṛ (मन्तृ):—(ntā) 4. m. A sage; a counsellor.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्).—a. [mantrayate mantr ṇini]
1) Wise, clever in counsel.
2) Familiar with sacred texts or spells.
3) Ved. Eloquent. -m.
1) A minister, counsellor, a king's minister; अजिताधिगमाय मन्त्रिभिर्युयुजे नीतिविशारदैरजः (ajitādhigamāya mantribhiryuyuje nītiviśāradairajaḥ) R.8. 17; Manusmṛti 8.1.
2) A conjurer, an enchanter.
3) (In chess) The queen.
4) (In astrol.) The 12th mansion.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्):—[from man] a mfn. wise or eloquent, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]
2) [v.s. ...] m. ‘knowing sacred texts or spells’, a conjurer, enchanter, [Bhartṛhari]
3) [v.s. ...] a king’s counsellor, minister, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] (in chess) the queen, [Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha]
5) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) the 12th mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā]
6) [from mantr] b See p.786.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्).—[adjective] wise, clever. [masculine] enchanter, conjurer; a king’s minister or councillor.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mantṛ (मन्तृ).—[masculine] thinker, assenter.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्).—i. e. mantra + in, m. A counsellor, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 428 (a -sant-, adj. Having wicked counsellors).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mantṛ (मन्तृ).—[man + tṛ], m. 1. A wise man. 2. An adviser.
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Mantr (मन्त्र्).—i. 10 (properly a [denominative.] derived from mantra), [Ātmanepada.] (but often also [Parasmaipada.]). † i. 1, [Parasmaipada.] 1. To take secret council with (with instr. and acc.), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 146; [Pañcatantra] rec. orn. 2. To deliberate, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 16, 15. 3. To resolve, [Hitopadeśa] 129, 13. 4. To speak, [Hitopadeśa] 64, 6 ([Parasmaipada.]). Ptcple. of the pf. pass. mantrita, Advised. Comp. See Ku-. Durmº, i. e. dus-, I. adj. imprudently advised, Mahābhārata 5, 4262. Ii. n. a bad advice, ib. 5, 2697. Su-, I. adj. 1. well deliberated, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 137. 2. well counselled. Ii. n. wise counsel.
— With the prep. anu anu, 1. To accompany with spells or prayers, to consecrate by spells, to charm, Chr. 31, 12; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 39, 10. 2. To dismiss, Mahābhārata 3, 39
— With abhi abhi, To consecrate by blessings, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 24, 2; by spells, to charm, [Draupadīpramātha] 8, 54.
— With ā ā, 1. To address, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 8. 2. To salute, Mahābhārata 3, 2243. 3. To invite, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 191; [Pañcatantra] 26, 20. 4. To call, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 125, 9. 5. To ask, Mahābhārata 4, 64. 6. To take leave (acc.), Mahābhārata 3, 2295.
— With samā sam-ā, To address, Mahābhārata 2, 42.
— With upa upa, 1. To address, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 197, 10. 2. To invite, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 46, 12. 3. To take leave (acc.), Chr. 45, 11.
— With ni ni, To invite, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 187; to present with (with instr.) [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 139.
— With upani upa ni, 1. To invite, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 51. 2. To consecrate, Mahābhārata 3, 15959.
— With saṃni sam-ni, To invite, Mahābhārata 3, 2112.
— With pari pari, To consecrate, to charm, [Arjunasamāgama] 7, 18.
— With sam sam, 1. To take council with (instr.), [Pañcatantra] 25, 13; Chr. 53, 6. 2. To deliberate, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 216. 3. To reflect, [Pañcatantra] 25, 14. 4. To salute, Mahābhārata 1, 5454.
— Cf. probably [Gothic.] mathljan; see mantra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mantrin (मन्त्रिन्).—m. (-ntrī) A counsellor or adviser, a king’s counsellor, a minister. E. matri to advise, ini aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ntā) 1. A sage, one who is possessed of holy knowledge. 2. An adviser, a counsellor. E. man to know, Unadi aff. tṛc .Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Mantṛ (मन्तृ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Maṃtu.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Mantri in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a minister; secretary (of an organisation etc.); ~,[upa] Deputy Minister; -, [pradhana] Prime Minister; -,[mukhya] Chief Minister; -,[rajya] Minister of state..—mantri (मंत्री) is alternatively transliterated as Maṃtrī.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
Maṃtri (ಮಂತ್ರಿ):—[Cf. Maṃṭi]
1) [noun] (masc.) a learned person who can interprete the vedic hymns exactly.
2) [noun] a man who supposedly cures diseases, phobia, etc. by reciting appropriate hymns.
3) [noun] a man who practices sorcery; a black magician; a wizard; a sorcerer.
4) [noun] (masc.) an experienced person in counsel.
5) [noun] a member of a state cabinet, who is independently in charge of administration of a department; a minister.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+15): Mamtrimamdala, Mamtripa, Mamtrisamputa, Mamtrisu, Mamtritana, Mantita, Mantridhura, Mantriduhitri, Mantrika, Mantrikaatma, Mantrikakhela, Mantrikopanishad, Mantrikula, Mantrimandal, Mantrimukhya, Mantrini, Mantrinirahasya, Mantriparishad, Mantripati, Mantripradhana.
Full-text (+206): Mantu, Pradhanamantrin, Arthacinta, Ashtapradhana, Mahamantrin, Mantrimukhya, Mantripradhana, Mantrivara, Mantrivat, Manti, Mantrita, Mantripati, Anumantri, Avamantri, Nimantraka, Samantritva, Paridhvamsin, Mukhyamantritva, Mantritva, Nimantrana.
Search found 28 books and stories containing Mantri, Mantrin, Mantrī, Maṃtri, Mantṛ, Maṃtrī, Mantr, Mamtri, Mantrī; (plurals include: Mantris, Mantrins, Mantrīs, Maṃtris, Mantṛs, Maṃtrīs, Mantrs, Mamtris). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 1.7.120 < [Chapter 7 - Pūrṇa (pinnacle of excellent devotees)]
Verse 1.6.77 < [Chapter 6 - Priyatama (the most beloved devotees)]
Verse 1.5.116 < [Chapter 5 - Priya (the beloved devotees)]
The Matsya Purana (critical study) (by Kushal Kalita)
Part 5 - The king and his Council (pariṣad) < [Chapter 6 - Polity in the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 6 - Qualifications of Ministers (amātya) < [Chapter 6 - Polity in the Matsyapurāṇa]
The Practice Manual of Noble Tārā Kurukullā (by Dharmachakra Translation Committee)
The Agni Purana (by N. Gangadharan)
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 3.1 - Types of Disciples < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 3.5 - Classification of Sahṛdaya (critic or reader) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)