Jivanandana of Anadaraya Makhin (Study)

by G. D. Jayalakshmi | 2019 | 58,344 words

This page relates ‘Sandhis and Sandhyangas’ of the study on the Jivanandana (in English) which is a dramatic play written by Anadaraya Makhin in the 18th century. The Jivanandana praises the excellence of Advaita Vedanta, Ayurveda (medical science) and Dramatic literature as the triple agency for obtaining everlasting bliss.

The unification of the theme and action of the plot of the drama is called Sandhi. That is, the five Avasthās and the five Arthaprakṛtis that develop the theme and action are combined, to produce the Sandhis.

There are thus five Sandhis[1]

(i) Mukha Sandhi (opening)–The arising of the source of the drama is called Mukha Sandhi and the same is the source of subordinate stories, objects and sentiments.

(ii) Pratimukha Sandhi (progress)–The development of the plot, in accordance with its quality of being perceptible.

(iii) Garbha Sandhi (development)–The sprouting of the seed, whether it leads to fruition or not, is Garbha Sandhi. There may be or may not be Patākā in the Garbha for it does not play any important role in it. But the possibility of success in the Bīja is essential in the Garbha Sandhi.

(iv) Vimarśa Sandhi (pause)–In this Sandhi the certainty of success is assured and it connects the Garbha Sandhi to the end and manifests the object of the bīja.

(v) Nirvahaṇa Sandhi (conclusion)–The part of the story in which all the four stages of the drama (Mukha, Pratimukha, Garbha and Avamarśa), are unified in one and lead to the final result is called the Nirvahaṇa.

Also there are sixty four sandhyaṅgas; and the necessity for these is six-fold as given below[2] :

  1. Expressing the desired object,
  2. Non-omission of any essential item in the Plot,
  3. Attaing the quality of pleasing in production,
  4. Concealment of the objects to be concealed,
  5. Telling tales of surprise,
  6. Disclosing things to be disclosed

Footnotes and references:


N.Ś. XIX. 37:
mukhaṃ pratimukhaṃ caiva garbho vimarśa eva ca |
tathā nirvahaṇaṃ ceti nāṭake paṣca sandhayaḥ ||


N.Ś. XIX.51-2:
iṣṭasyārthasya racanā vṛttāntasyānupakṣayaḥ |
rāgaprāptiḥ prayogasya guhyānāṃ caiva gūhanam ||
āścaryavadabhikhyānaṃ prakāśyānāṃ prakāśanam |
āṅgānāṃ ṣaḍivadhaṃ hyetad dṛṣṭaṃ śāstre prayojanam ||

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