Jivanandana of Anandaraya Makhin (Study)

by G. D. Jayalakshmi | 2019 | 58,344 words

This page relates ‘Analysis of Nandi’ of the study on the Jivanandana (in English) which is a dramatic play written by Anadaraya Makhin in the 18th century. The Jivanandana praises the excellence of Advaita Vedanta, Ayurveda (medical science) and Dramatic literature as the triple agency for obtaining everlasting bliss.

[Stage-Conventions]:—All parts of the plot should be divided into two as sūcya and dṛśya-śravya. The part of the story which is not agreeable and is improper must be informed indirectly (sūcya) and the part of the story which is full of illustrious feelings and sentiment must be spoken and shown on the stage (drśya-śrāvya). Also there are certain technicalities called Nāṭyoktis.

[Section A: Vastu of Jīvānanda Nāṭaka]:—The play wright of this Nāṭaka, Ānandarāya Makhin follows the Nāṭakalakṣaṇa, as laid by Bharata and other dramturgists almost meticulously in constructing this play. An suiting the nāṭaka type of rūpaka, the theme and action of the play, falling under the criteria called Vastu, has been efficiently handled by the playwright producing a relishable play complete in all respects. The Vastu of the play, comprising of the five–Arthaprakṛtis and the five Avasthās shaping into Sandhis and Sandhyaṅgas and other dramatic features–is discussed in this section

Two verses are presented by the author as Nāndī verses with which this play opens on the stage. Both of them are āśīrvacanas; while the first is indictive of the plot and the second Nāndī establishes the aim of the plot (vastunirdeśa).

Nāndī is the initial worship to the Almighty rendered before starting the play. It is in the form of a prayer for the successful staging of the play. Nāndī is of three types as–āśiḥ (benediction), namaskriyā (salutation) and vastunirdeśa (hinting the subject matter). Also, it is to be composed with words like śaṅkha, candra, abja, cakravāka and kairava which are considered to be auspicious.[1]

Of the two Nāndī verses in Jivānanda Nāṭaka, the first[2] seeks the blessings of Dhanvantarī and the second[3] invokes lord Śiva’s Grace. The first verse also carries such words as lakṣmīḥ and candra. The fight for amṛta alluded to in the first Nāndī indicates the fight of Jīva and Yakṣmā in the drama; the second verse establishes the subject matter stating that for procuring at first trivarga (dhama, artha and kāma) and later mokṣa, a healthy body is a must and mokṣa in possible only by the grace of the Supreme.

Footnotes and references:


Sāhityadarpaṇa, VI. 24-5:
āśīrvacanasaṃyuktā stutiryasmātprayujyate |
devadvijanṛpādīnāṃ tasmānnāndīti saṃjṣitā ||
māṅgalyaśaṅkhacandrābjakokairavaśaṃsinī |
padairyuktā dvādaśabhiraṣṭābhirvā padairuta ||


Nāndī 1:
lakṣmīkairavabandhukalpakatarūn labdhvāpyalabdhepsite bhūyo manthati devadānavagaṇe dugdhābdhimṛddhaśrame |
tasyānandathunā samaṃ samudayan kumbhaṃ sudhāpūritaṃ vibhrāṇaḥ svakare karotu bhavatāṃ bhadrāṇi dhanvantariḥ ||


Nāndī 2:
prāgjanmīyatapaḥ phalaṃ tanubhṛtā prāpyeta mānuṣyakaṃ tacca prāptavatā kimanyaducitaṃ prāptuṃ trivargaṃ vinā |
tatprāpterapi sādhanaṃ prathamato deho rujāvarjitastenārogyamabhīpsitaṃ diśatu vo devaḥ paśūnāṃ patiḥ ||

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