Yoga-sutras (with Vyasa and Vachaspati Mishra)

by Rama Prasada | 1924 | 154,800 words | ISBN-10: 9381406863 | ISBN-13: 9789381406861

The Yoga-Sutra 4.13, English translation with Commentaries. The Yoga Sutras are an ancient collection of Sanskrit texts dating from 500 BCE dealing with Yoga and Meditation in four books. It deals with topics such as Samadhi (meditative absorption), Sadhana (Yoga practice), Vibhuti (powers or Siddhis), Kaivaly (isolation) and Moksha (liberation).

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Sūtra 4.13:

ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्मा गुणात्मानः ॥ ४.१३ ॥

te vyaktasūkṣmā guṇātmānaḥ || 4.13 ||

te—they, vyaktamanifested, sūkṣmāḥ—and subtle, guṇa-ātmānaḥ—and of the nature of the qualities (guṇa).

13. They are manifested and subtle, and of the nature of the qualities.—173.

The Sankhya-pravachana commentary of Vyasa

[English translation of the 7th century commentary by Vyāsa called the Sāṅkhya-pravacana, Vyāsabhāṣya or Yogabhāṣya]

[Sanskrit text for commentary available]

They, i.e., these characteristics which are possessed of the three paths of being, are of the nature of the manifested, when they exist in the present, and are of the nature of the subtle when they passed into the past or are yet unmanifested. They are the six unspecialized appearances. All this is but the specific arrangement of the ‘qualities.’ In truth, therefore, they are of the nature of the ‘qualities.’ So teaches the Śāstra:—‘The real appearance of the qualities does not come within the line of vision. That, however, which comes within the line, is but paltry delusion.’—173.

The Gloss of Vachaspati Mishra

[English translation of the 9th century Tattvavaiśāradī by Vācaspatimiśra]

Let that be. This detail, however, of the differences of the world which puts forth the appearance of the changes of the characterized, the characteristic, the secondary quality and condition in many ways, is not capable of appearance from one Mūlaprakṛti. For this reason says:—They are manifested and subtle and of the nature of the ‘qualities.’ They, the characteristics possessed of the three paths of being, are both manifested and subtle, and they are of the nature of the qualities. There is nothing beyond the three qualities. The variety of manifestation is due to the variety which comes in sequence of the eternal miseries and their residua which they have given birth to.

As has been said in the Vāyu Purāṇa:—This change of the Pradhāna is wonderful on account of showing forth all appearances. It is the six unspecialized manifestations, which in such a way as it may be, constitute the past, the present and the future of the manifested Pṛthvī, &c., and of the eleven instruments of action, sensation and thought.

Now describes the eternal appearance of the universe, with the object of dividing the appearances thereof into the eternal and the non-eternal: All this is but the specific appearance of the ‘qualities.’ The meaning is that evolutionary changes which are visible, consist of different arrangements and forms. On this subject is the teaching of the Śāstra possessed of sixty Tantras.

‘Is but paltry delusion’:—This means that it is paltry as if it were delusion, not that it is delusion and nothing else. Paltry means destructible. As delusion changes even in a day, so also the modifications possessing the characteristics of manifestation and disappearance assume other appearances every second. The Prakṛti is possessed of the characteristic of eternity, and in this way is different from the Māyā, it is so far real.—13.

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