Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

Verse 4.19

अभियुक्तो यदा पश्येन् न किञ्चिद् गतिम् आत्मनः ।
युध्यमानस् तदा प्राज्ञो म्रियते रिपुणा सह ॥ १९ ॥

abhiyukto yadā paśyen na kiñcid gatim ātmanaḥ |
yudhyamānas tadā prājño mriyate ripuṇā saha || 19 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 4.19 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (4.19). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Abhiyukta, Yada, Yad, Pashya, Kincid, Gati, Atman, Yudhyamana, Tada, Prajna, Mriyat, Ripu, Saha,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 4.19). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “abhiyukto yadā paśyen na kiñcid gatim ātmanaḥ
  • abhiyukto* -
  • abhiyukta (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • yadā -
  • yadā (indeclinable adverb)
    [indeclinable adverb]
    yadā (indeclinable relative)
    [indeclinable relative]
    yadā (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    yad (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental single]
  • paśye -
  • paśya (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single], [locative single]
    paśya (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    paśyā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single], [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    paś -> paśya (participle, masculine)
    [vocative single from √paś class 10 verb], [locative single from √paś class 10 verb]
    paś -> paśya (participle, neuter)
    [nominative dual from √paś class 10 verb], [vocative single from √paś class 10 verb], [vocative dual from √paś class 10 verb], [accusative dual from √paś class 10 verb], [locative single from √paś class 10 verb]
    paś -> paśyā (participle, feminine)
    [nominative single from √paś class 10 verb], [nominative dual from √paś class 10 verb], [vocative single from √paś class 10 verb], [vocative dual from √paś class 10 verb], [accusative dual from √paś class 10 verb]
    paś (verb class 10)
    [present passive first single]
  • īn -
  • i (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural]
  • na -
  • na (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    na (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    na (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • kiñcid -
  • kiñcid (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • gatim -
  • gati (noun, feminine)
    [accusative single]
    gati (noun, masculine)
    [accusative single]
  • ātmanaḥ -
  • ātman (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural], [ablative single], [genitive single]
  • Line 2: “yudhyamānas tadā prājño mriyate ripuṇā saha
  • yudhyamānas -
  • yudh -> yudhyamāna (participle, masculine)
    [nominative single from √yudh class 1 verb], [nominative single from √yudh class 4 verb]
  • tadā -
  • tadā (indeclinable adverb)
    [indeclinable adverb]
    tadā (indeclinable correlative)
    [indeclinable correlative]
    tadā (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    tadā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
  • prājño* -
  • prājña (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • mriyate -
  • mṛ -> mriyat (participle, masculine)
    [dative single from √mṛ class 6 verb]
    mṛ -> mriyat (participle, neuter)
    [dative single from √mṛ class 6 verb]
    mṛ (verb class 1)
    [present passive third single]
    mṛ (verb class 6)
    [present middle third single], [present passive third single]
  • ripuṇā -
  • ripu (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental single]
    ripu (noun, neuter)
    [instrumental single]
  • saha -
  • saha (indeclinable postposition)
    [indeclinable postposition]
    saha (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    saha (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    sah (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 4.19

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 4.19 in Gujarati sript:
અભિયુક્તો યદા પશ્યેન્ ન કિઞ્ચિદ્ ગતિમ્ આત્મનઃ ।
યુધ્યમાનસ્ તદા પ્રાજ્ઞો મ્રિયતે રિપુણા સહ ॥ ૧૯ ॥

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