Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

Verse 4.18

तावद् भयेन भेतव्यं यावद् भयम् अनागतम् ।
आगतं तु भयं दृष्ट्वा प्रहरत्वयम् अभीतिवत् ॥ १८ ॥

tāvad bhayena bhetavyaṃ yāvad bhayam anāgatam |
āgataṃ tu bhayaṃ dṛṣṭvā praharatvayam abhītivat || 18 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 4.18 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (4.18). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Tavat, Bhaya, Bhetavya, Yavat, Anagata, Agata, Prahara, Tva, Aya, Idam, Abhi, Itivat,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 4.18). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “tāvad bhayena bhetavyaṃ yāvad bhayam anāgatam
  • tāvad -
  • tāvat (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    tāvat (indeclinable correlative)
    [indeclinable correlative]
    tāvat (noun, masculine)
    [compound]
    tāvat (noun, neuter)
    [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • bhayena -
  • bhaya (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental single]
    bhaya (noun, neuter)
    [instrumental single]
  • bhetavyam -
  • bhetavya (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    bhetavya (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    bhetavyā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • yāvad -
  • yāvat (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    yāvat (indeclinable relative)
    [indeclinable relative]
    yāvat (noun, masculine)
    [compound]
    yāvat (noun, neuter)
    [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • bhayam -
  • bhaya (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    bhaya (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    bhayā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • anāgatam -
  • anāgata (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    anāgata (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    anāgatā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • Line 2: “āgataṃ tu bhayaṃ dṛṣṭvā praharatvayam abhītivat
  • āgatam -
  • āgata (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    āgata (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    āgatā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    ag (verb class 1)
    [imperfect active second dual]
  • tu -
  • tu (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
  • bhayam -
  • bhaya (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    bhaya (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    bhayā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • dṛṣṭvā -
  • dṛś -> dṛṣṭvā (absolutive)
    [absolutive from √dṛś]
  • prahara -
  • prahara (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • tva -
  • tu (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    tva (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • ayam -
  • aya (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    idam (pronoun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • abhī -
  • abhi (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    abhi (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    abhi (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
    abhi (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    abhī (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    abhī (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
    abhī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
  • itivat -
  • itivat (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 4.18

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 4.18 in Gujarati sript:
તાવદ્ ભયેન ભેતવ્યં યાવદ્ ભયમ્ અનાગતમ્ ।
આગતં તુ ભયં દૃષ્ટ્વા પ્રહરત્વયમ્ અભીતિવત્ ॥ ૧૮ ॥

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