Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

Verse 3.61

छिद्रं मर्म च वीर्यं च सर्वं वेत्ति निजो रिपुः ।
दहत्य् अन्तर्गतश् चैव शुष्कं वृक्षम् इवानलः ॥ ६१ ॥

chidraṃ marma ca vīryaṃ ca sarvaṃ vetti nijo ripuḥ |
dahaty antargataś caiva śuṣkaṃ vṛkṣam ivānalaḥ || 61 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 3.61 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (3.61). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Chidra, Marman, Virya, Sarva, Nija, Ripu, Antargata, Shushka, Vriksha, Anala,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 3.61). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line1: “chidraṃ marma ca vīryaṃ ca sarvaṃ vetti nijo ripuḥ”
  • chidram -
  • chidra (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    chidram (adverb)
    chidram (accusative single)
    chidra (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    chidram (adverb)
    chidram (nominative single)
    chidram (accusative single)
    chidrā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    chidram (adverb)
  • marma -
  • marman (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    marma (compound)
    marma (adverb)
    marma (nominative single)
    marma (vocative single)
    marma (accusative single)
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable conjunction)
    ca (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
    ca (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
  • vīryam -
  • vīrya (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    vīryam (adverb)
    vīryam (nominative single)
    vīryam (accusative single)
    vīryā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    vīryam (adverb)
    vīr -> vīrya (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    vīryam (accusative single), from √vīr (class 10 verb)
    vīr -> vīrya (participle, neuter); (2 der.)
    vīryam (nominative single), from √vīr (class 10 verb)
    vīryam (accusative single), from √vīr (class 10 verb)
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable conjunction)
    ca (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
    ca (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
  • sarvam -
  • sarvam (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    sarva (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    sarvam (adverb)
    sarvam (accusative single)
    sarva (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    sarvam (nominative single)
    sarvam (accusative single)
  • vetti -
  • vid (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    vetti (present active third single)
  • nijo* -
  • nija (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    nijaḥ (nominative single)
  • ripuḥ -
  • ripu (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    ripuḥ (nominative single)
    ripu (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    ripuḥ (nominative single)
  • Line2: “dahaty antargataś caiva śuṣkaṃ vṛkṣam ivānalaḥ”
  • Cannot analyse dahaty*an
  • antargataś -
  • antargata (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    antargataḥ (nominative single)
  • cai -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable conjunction)
    ca (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
    ca (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
    (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    (nominative single)
  • aiva -
  • i (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    aiva (imperfect active first dual)
  • śuṣkam -
  • śuṣka (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    śuṣkam (adverb)
    śuṣkam (accusative single)
    śuṣka (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    śuṣkam (adverb)
    śuṣkam (nominative single)
    śuṣkam (accusative single)
    śuṣkā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    śuṣkam (adverb)
    śuṣ -> śuṣka (participle, masculine); (2 der.)
    śuṣkam (accusative single), from √śuṣ (class 4 verb)
    śuṣkam (accusative single), from √śuṣ (class 6 verb)
    śuṣ -> śuṣka (participle, neuter); (4 der.)
    śuṣkam (nominative single), from √śuṣ (class 4 verb)
    śuṣkam (accusative single), from √śuṣ (class 4 verb)
    śuṣkam (nominative single), from √śuṣ (class 6 verb)
    śuṣkam (accusative single), from √śuṣ (class 6 verb)
  • vṛkṣam -
  • vṛkṣa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    vṛkṣam (adverb)
    vṛkṣam (accusative single)
    vṛkṣā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    vṛkṣam (adverb)
  • ivā -
  • iva (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    iva (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
  • analaḥ -
  • anala (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    analaḥ (nominative single)
    nal (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    analaḥ (imperfect active second single)

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 3.61

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 3.61 in Gujarati sript:
છિદ્રં મર્મ ચ વીર્યં ચ સર્વં વેત્તિ નિજો રિપુઃ ।
દહત્ય્ અન્તર્ગતશ્ ચૈવ શુષ્કં વૃક્ષમ્ ઇવાનલઃ ॥ ૬૧ ॥

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