Agaru: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Agaru means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Agaru (अगरु).—The forest in the Kuru country between the two mountains Candrakānta and Sūryakānta.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 31.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Agaru [ಅಗರು] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. from the Thymelaeaceae (Daphne) family having the following synonyms: Aquilaria moluccensis, Aquilaria secundaria, Aquilaria agallochum. For the possible medicinal usage of agaru, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Agaru [अगरु, अगरुः] in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Agaru in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Excoecaria agallocha L. from the Euphorbiaceae (Castor) family.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Agaru (अगरु) refers to “aloe wood” and is mentioned as one of the fragrant substances used in the treatment of aggravated phlegm, according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Procedure to alleviate kapha (phlegm) after meals: The excess phlegm in the human body can lead to the weakening of digestive fire. Sleeping immediately after the meal will result in the aggravation of phlegm. The excess phlegm must be alleviated by employing fumes of the fragrant substances [such as agaru (aloe wood), ...]. After a meal, one must walk a few steps. Practising this lightens the food mass and imparts comfort in the neck, knees and loins. The excess phlegm can also be alleviated by savoring betel leaves along with fragrant substances

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Agaru (अगरु) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning agaru] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Agaru (अगरु) refers to “aloe” (perfume), according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—[...] His heart is agitated with sexual desire. His lotus face displays a faint smile. This is how the Yogin should visualise his body for a long time, as transformed into Śiva. All his limbs are perfumed with sandal, aloe (agaru), camphor, musk and saffron. He has a beautiful face. He is surrounded by millions of gem islands, in a chamber on a fine bed”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Agaru (अगरु) refers to “Agallochum” (Amyris agallocha), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Venus also presides over simple silk, coloured silk, wollen cloth, white silk, Rodhra, Patra, Coca, nutmeg, Agaru, Vacā, Pippalī and sandal”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Agaru (अगरु) refers to “Agallochum” or Amyris agallocha (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “[...] Four Nāga kings should be prepared in the middle of the ditch. [...] Decorations should be made with ribbons and banners. Worship should be performed. One should perfume agaru, sandal and olibanum, and combine tagara, nalada, kunduruka, liquor, parched grain, mustard seed and sarja-resin with honey. It should be enchanted with the mantra twenty-one times and incense should be offered for the Nāgas. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Agaru (अगरु) refers to one of the various shops or “market places” (Sanskrit: Haṭṭa, Prakrit: Cauhaṭṭa) for a medieval town in ancient India, which were vividly depicted in Kathās (narrative poems), for example, by Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā.—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] In the Kuvalayamālā, some names of shops according to articles displayed in them is given, [i.e., agaru] [...] Thus Uddyotana has in his view a complete form of a medieval market place with the number of lines full of different commodities.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Agaru in India is the name of a plant defined with Aquilaria agallocha in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Aloexylum agallochum Lour. (among others).

2) Agaru is also identified with Commiphora agallocha It has the synonym Balsamodendrum agallocha Wight & Arn..

3) Agaru is also identified with Commiphora wightii It has the synonym Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks (etc.).

4) Agaru is also identified with Dalbergia sissoo It has the synonym Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. (etc.).

5) Agaru is also identified with Dysoxylum malabaricum.

6) Agaru is also identified with Pterocarpus santalinus It has the synonym Lingoum santalinum (L.f.) Kuntze (etc.).

7) Agaru is also identified with Triadica sebifera It has the synonym Seborium chinense Raf. (etc.).

8) Agaru in Philippines is also identified with Dysoxylum decandrum It has the synonym Dysoxylum decandrum Merr..

9) Agaru in Tibetan is also identified with Aquilaria malaccensis It has the synonym Agallochum malaccense (Lam.) Kuntze (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica (1982)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1997)
· Pharmaceutical Biology (2007)
· Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique (1783)
· Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1825)
· Bureau of Government Laboratories (Philippines) (1905)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Agaru, for example pregnancy safety, health benefits, diet and recipes, chemical composition, extract dosage, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

agaru : (adj.) not heavy; not troublesome. (m.), aloe wood.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Agaru, (adj.) (cp. Sk. aguru, a + garu) (a) not heavy, not troublesome, only in phrase: sace te agaru “if it does not inconvenience you, if you don’t mind” (cp. BSk. yadi te aguru. Av. S.I, 94, 229; II, 90) Vin. I.25; IV, 17, D.I, 51; DhA.I, 39. — (b) disrespectful, irreverent (against = Gen.) D.I, 89; Sn.p. 51. (Page 3)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

agaru (अगरु).—m (S) Aloe-wood, Aquilaria agallochum. Rox. Ex. a0 kṛṣṇāgaru suvāsēṃ ||

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

agaru (अगरु).—m Aloe-wood.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Agaru (अगरु).—n. [na girati; gṝ. -u. na. ta.] Agallochum, Amyris Agallocha. a kind of चन्दन (candana); also अगुरु (aguru); संचारिते चागुरुसारयोनौ धूपे समुत्सर्पति वैजयन्तीः (saṃcārite cāgurusārayonau dhūpe samutsarpati vaijayantīḥ) R.6.8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agaru (अगरु).—mn. (-ruḥ-ru) Agallochum, (Aquilaria agallocha, Rox) See aguru.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Agaru (अगरु):—mn. Agallochum, Amyris Agallocha

2) [=aga-ru] [from agaru] cf. aguru.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agaru (अगरु):—[tatpurusha compound] m. n.

(-ruḥ-ru) Agallochum (Aquilaria agallocha, Rox.). See aguru.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agaru (अगरु):—[a-garu] (ruḥ-ru) 2. m. n. Agallochum.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Agaru (अगरु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Agara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Agaru in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Agarū (अगरू):—(nm) aloe (wood).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Agaru (ಅಗರು):—

1) [noun] the large tree Aquilaria agallocha of Thymelaeaceae family, with alternate lanceolate leaves; agallochum aloe.

2) [noun] the tree Commiphora agallocha ( = Balsamodendrum roxburghii) of Burseraceae family; Indian bdellium.

3) [noun] the tree, Dalbergia sisso ( = D. sissosa, = D.sissu ) of Papilionaceae family.

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Agaru (ಅಗರು):—[noun] the dandruff of the head.

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Agaru (ಅಗರು):—[verb] to emit fragrance; to be sweet smelling.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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