Pancanga, aka: Pañcaṅga, Pañcāṅga, Pancan-anga; 6 Definition(s)

Introduction

Pancanga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Panchanga.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Pancanga in Jyotisha glossary... « previous · [P] · next »

Pañcāṅga (पञ्चाङ्ग).—A yearly calendar tracking the succession of various civil, liturgical, and astronomical time units. Note: Pañcāṅga is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

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Pañcāṅga (पञ्चाङ्ग) refers to the “practical face of Indian astronomical tradition”.—The word pañcāṅga connotes five constituents, namely (i) lunar day (tithi); (ii) asterism (nakṣatra); (iii) name of the weekday (vāra); (iv) an element related to the lunar day (karaṇa); and (v) the one related to the longitued of the sun and the moon on that day (yoga).. Pañcāṅga is a calendar of the Indian astronomical tradition including Hindus, Jainas and Buddhists. Even now it is an iompotant annual compendium being prepared by traditional almanac-makers; and on each new year’s day, it is reverentially worshipped and read in orthodox Hindu households.

In addition to its five components, a pañcāṅga now provides a wide variety of information: days of religious ceremonies, festivals, car-ceremonies in temples, auspicious and inauspicious times, good days for travel, propitious times (muhūrtas) for the performance of marriages, thread ceremony, inaugurations, etc. A pañcāṅga also provides the planetary positions and the time of occurrence of eclipses. A large number of pañcāṅga are being prepared and published annually in different parts of India, each one with its own characteristics, but maintaining the five core constituents. They can be broadly categorized into Luni-solar and Solar.

In a Luni-solar pañcāṅga, the lunar month (twelve in a year) begins with the first day (pratipat) of the bright half (śūkla pakṣa) and ends with the last day of the dark half (Kṛṣṇa pakṣa) or amāvāsyā. The twelve lunar months in a pañcāṅga are:

  1. Caitra,
  2. Vaikha,
  3. Jyeṣṭha,
  4. Āṣāḍha,
  5. Śrāvaṇa,
  6. Bhādrapada,
  7. Āśvina or Āsvayuja,
  8. Kāṛtika,
  9. Mārgaśira,
  10. Puṣya,
  11. Māgha,
  12. and Phālguṇa.

In a Solar pañcāṅga, the solar year commences when the sun enters the first zodiacal sign, Meṣa rāśi, and it is known as Meṣa saṅkramaṇa (ingress). The solar year has also twelve months, but named after the zodiacal signs into which the sun enters:

  1. Meṣa,
  2. Vṛsabha,
  3. Mithuna,
  4. Kaṭaka,
  5. Siṃha,
  6. Kanyā,
  7. Tula,
  8. Vṛṣcika,
  9. Dhanus,
  10. Makara,
  11. Kumbha
  12. and Mīna.
Source: Google Books: Science in India

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Pancanga in Mahayana glossary... « previous · [P] · next »

Pañcāṅga (पञ्चाङ्ग) refers to the “five dharma practices” for obtaining the first dhyāna according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “if he has been able to reject the five sense objects (kāmaguṇa) and remove the five obstacles (nīvaraṇa), the ascetic practices the five dharmas”.

The five dharmas are:

  1. aspiration (chanda),
  2. exertion (vīrya),
  3. mindfulness (smṛti),
  4. clear seeing (saṃprajñāna),
  5. concentration of mind (cittaikāgratā).

By practicing these five dharmas, he acquires the first dhyāna furnished with five members (pañcāṅga-samanvāgata).

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

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pañcaṅga : (adj.) consisting of five parts.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

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pañcāṅga (पंचांग).—n (S pañca & aṅga The five members or departments, viz. tithi, vāra, nakṣatra, yōga, karaṇa) A Hindu calendar or almanack. 2 The five departments of devotion or pious service,--silent prayer, burnt offering, libation, idol-ablution, Brahmanfeeding. 3 Any aggregate of five members or parts or of five things. 4 Reverence by extending the hands, bending the knees and head, and by speech and look.

--- OR ---

pañcāṅga (पंचांग).—a (S) Having five members, parts, constituents, appendages, divisions &c.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

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Pañcāṅga (पञ्चाङ्ग).—a. five-membered, having five parts or divisions as in पञ्चाङ्गः प्रणामः (pañcāṅgaḥ praṇāmaḥ) (i. e. bāhubhyāṃ caiva jānubhyāṃ śirasā vakṣasā dṛśā); कृतपञ्चाङ्गविनिर्णयो नयः (kṛtapañcāṅgavinirṇayo nayaḥ) Ki.2.12. (see Malli. and Kāmandaka quoted by him); पञ्चाङ्गमभिनयमुपदिश्य (pañcāṅgamabhinayamupadiśya) M.1; चित्ताक्षिभ्रूहस्तपादैरङ्गैश्चेष्टादिसाम्यतः । पात्राद्यवस्थाकरणं पञ्चाङ्गेऽभिनयो मतः (cittākṣibhrūhastapādairaṅgaiśceṣṭādisāmyataḥ | pātrādyavasthākaraṇaṃ pañcāṅge'bhinayo mataḥ) || (-ṅgaḥ) 1 a tortoise or turtle.

2) a kind of horse with five spots in different parts of his body.

-ṅgī a bit for horses.

Pañcāṅga is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pañcan and aṅga (अङ्ग).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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