### The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes Pancanga: The Almanac which is chapter 122 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

# Chapter 122 - Pañcāṅga: The Almanac

[*Sanskrit text for this chapter is available*]

[Note: *Pañcāṅga* or the five aspects of reckoning time for each day, computed and recorded in Hindu almanacs are:

*Vāra*(day of the week),*Tithi*(lunar day),*Nakṣatra*(the Constellation through which the moon moves),*Yoga*(Sum of the longitudes of the Sun and the Moon), and*Karaṇa*(half-*tithi*).

All these reckonings have religious and ritualistic significances.

The verses in this chapter are all of a highly cryptic nature and, like philosophical aphorisms, imply much more than what is actually expressed, and can be correctly understood only with suitable explanations. While the implied information is given brackets in the translation, an example is worked out in the Notes illustrating the working, step by step.]

*God Agni said*:

1a. Time is (reckoned by) the accumulated number of years, (months etc., from the epoch up to the point of time under consideration). I shall set forth the calculation involved in reckoning time.

1b. The accumulated (i.e. elapsed) number of years (up to the required point of time) is to be multiplied by 12 (*arka*) and the (number of months elapsed in the current year from) Citrā is to be added to the product)^{[1]}

2a. The sum obtained is doubled and placed at two places. To one is added 4 (*veda*) and to the other 865 (*pañcāṅgāṣṭa*). (The latter figure is to be divided by 60 and the quotient added to the first, while the remainder is kept as the second figure). The resultant is to be called ‘*guṇa*’.^{[2]}

2b. (The *guṇa*) is placed at three places (one below the other, in the serpentine fashion, each being written one step to the right of the preceding one). The ‘middle’ is multiplied by 8 (*vasu*) and the product again multiplied by 4 (veda). (The columns are to be added up.) and again written as ‘upper’, ‘middle’ and ‘lower’.^{[3]}

3. Subtract 398 (*aṣṭa-randhra-agni*) from the *lower* and 87 (*saika-rasāṣṭaka*) from the ‘middle’. Divide (the ‘middle’ and the ‘lower’) by 60 and add the quotients to the preceding, (keeping the remainders in their places).^{[4]}

4a. *Vāra-tithi* *correction*. The first (i.e. ‘upper’) when divided by 7 will give the week-day constant for *tithi*. (The quotient is to be rejected as of no more use.) The resultant is to be used as the Vāra-correction for *tithi-nāḍikās*.^{[5]}

4b-5. *Nakṣatra-Yoga* constants. The ‘*guṇa*’ derived above is to be multiplied by 2, and 3 subtracted from the second figure. *Guṇa* is set down before the result (in the serpentine fashion). 30 (*kha-rāma*) is set down below the last figure, and 6, 12 and 8 (*rasa-arka-aṣṭa*), respectively, below the three figures, (and the columns added up and elevated by dividing by 60). Divide the first figure by 28 and place it below the ‘correction for *tithi*’ (obtained in verse 4a). (add and take the result as a second ‘upper’).^{[6]}

6-8a. The ‘guṇa’ is halved, 3 subtracted (from its second figure) and the whole expression multiplied by 2. The first figure here is multiplied by 11 (*rudra*); the second figure is increased by 1 and divided by 39, the quotient being subtracted from the first figure and the remainder kept in its place. The resultant is termed *madhya*. Subtract 22 from the first figure and divide it by 60; the remainder is deductive; the quotient is added to the (second) ‘upper’ (of verses 4b-5). The first figure is divided by 27 and the remainder set down in its place. The resultant expression is the constant for the correction of *nakṣatra* and *yoga*.^{[7]}

8b-9a. Nakṣatra. For the calculation of *tithi*, there is a monthly constant, being 2 *piṇḍas* (i.e. whole units) and 32 *nāḍikās* (which has to be added to the *tithi* correction contained in verses 4a). Similarly, for the *nakṣatra*, there is a monthly constant, being 2 *nakṣatras* and 11 *nāḍikās*, (which, when added to the *nakṣatra* correction of verse 8a, will give the elapsed *nakṣatra* and the *nāḍikās* gone in the current *nakṣatra*.)^{[8]}

9b-10. *Weekday and commencing point of Tithi*. Add the *tithi-*correction above (to the *vārādi-tithi* correction got in verse 4a), placing the *tithi* number below the *vāra* number. Divide by 7 (if *vāra* plus *tithi* exceeds 7); the remainder will give the elapsed week-day counted from Sunday, and the *nāḍikās* gone in the next day at the point of the commencement of the relevant *tithi*) In the case of *tithis* after adding the complete units (*Piṇḍakas*), the sum should be divided by 14 (if the sum exceeds 14, and the remainder taken as the *tithi*.)^{[9]}

11-14a. *True-Tithi correction*. The correction, in *nāḍikās*, for the fourteen *tithis* would be, in order, minus, plus, plus, minus, (minus and so on). While the correction for the 14th *tithi* is zero), the correction for the thirteenth and the first is 5 (*vināḍikās*) (each, minus and plus, respectively), that for the 12th and the 2nd, 10 (*vināḍikās*), that for the 11th and 3rd, 15 (*vināḍikās*), that for the 10th and 4th, 19 (*vināḍikās*), that for the 9th and 5th, 22 (*vināḍikās*), that for the 8th and the 6th, 24 (*vināḍikās*), and that for the 7th, 25 (*vināḍikās*). These *khaṇḍakas* (correction-bits) are to be applied appropriately to the *piṇḍakas* (full units).^{[10]}

14b-17a. *Vikālā correction*. In the case of (the three), Karkaṭaka, (Siṃha and Kanyā), divide the *rāśis*, respectively, by 6 (*ṛtu*), 4 (*veda*) and 3 (*traya*); in the case of Tulā, (Vṛścika and Dhanus), divide, respectively, in the reverse, i.e. by 3, 4 and 6; in the case of Makara, (Kumbha and Mīna), respectively, by 3, 4 and 6; and in the case of Meṣa, (Ṛṣabha and Mithuna), divide, respectively, in the reverse, i.e. by 6, 4 and 3. The correction, in *vikalās*, which is positive in the case of the three, Meṣa etc., are 50 (*kha-iṣu*), 40 (*kha-yuga*) and 12 (mitra); in the case of the three, Karkaṭaka etc., it is in the reverse order, (i.e. 12, 40 and 50, but positive); in the case of the three, Tula etc., (it is 50, 40 and 12), negative; (and, in the case of the three, Makara etc., it is 12, 40 and 50, negative).^{[11]}

17b-19a. *Application of the vikalā correction*. The *vikalā* correction is to be applied to the *tithi* multiplied by 4. Multiply their eleven *vikalās* by the difference in *liptās* (i.e. *kalās*) between the elapsed and to-elapse portions of the *tithi* and divide by 60. If the elapsed portion is less than/the portion to-elapse, treat the correction as positive even if it be negative and or positive, retain it as positive; while, in the case of the portion toelapse being greater, the reverse is the case (i.e. the correction is to be taken as negative both if it is negative or positive).

19b-21a. *Further correction to the Tithi*. Double (?Treble) (the *nāḍikās* of) the *tithi* and subtract from it one-sixth of (the product). Apply to it the *tithi-nāḍikās* obtained for the sun in the reverse order, and subtract the result from 60; the true *nāḍis* of the *tithi* would be obtained. If not subtractible, add 60 and subtract; if more than 60, reduce it by 60 and subtract.^{[12]}

21b-22. *Toga*. The *tithi* is associated with the constellation The *tithi* multiplied by 4 and a third (of the *tithi*) added to it. Apply to it the negative correction. (By dividing it by 27, the *yoga* elapsed and the *nāḍikās* in the current yoga are obtained.) True *tithi* has be to be used as the means for calculating the yoga.^{[13]}

23a. The *yoga* is, indeed, got also by adding (the longitudes of) the sun and the moon (in *kalās* and dividing by 800).^{[14]}

23b-24a. *Karaṇa*. (The number of) the *tithi* reduced by 1 and multiplied by 2, and the product divided by 7, gives the *karaṇa* of day-time. The *tithi*-number multiplied by 2 and the product reduced by 1 and divided by 6 (*kṛta*) gives the *karaṇa* of the night.^{[15]}

24b-c. The *karaṇa* of the end (i.e. second half) of the 14th *tithi* of the dark fortnight is called Śakuni; (that of the first half of the full moon day is called Catuṣpada; that of the end (i.e. second half of the full moon day) is called Ahi (Nāga); and that of the beginning (i.e. first half) of the *prathamā* (of the bright fortnight) is called Kiṃstughna.

## Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Any epoch or starting point in time might be adopted, like, for instance the *Kalpa* or the beginning of creation, the Caturyuga, Kaliyuga etc. or any of the eras like the Śaka.

Let the point of time taken for consideration, for which the *Pañcāṅga* is required be Śaka 10 (elapsed), in the month of Vaiśākha, 1st *tithi* of the bright fortnight.

[2]:

Multiplying the months from epoch by 2 (i.e. 121 X 2 = 242) and placing them in two places:

[3]:

[4]:

[5]:

Dividing the ‘upper’ by 7 for week-days and rejecting the quotient, we get the *vāra*-correction for *tithi* as 5-0-10 .

[6]:

[7]:

The *guṇa* (264-27) is halved (132-14), 3 subtracted from the second figure (132-11) and multiplied by 2 (i.e. 264-22). The first figure is multiplied by 11 (i.e. 2904); to the second figure 1 is added (i.e. 23) and divided by 39 and the remainder (i.e. 23) is retained. This is termed the new 'middle'. Subtracting 22 from the first figure (i.e. 2882-23) and elevating by 60, we get 48-2-23.

[8]:

Adding the *tithi*-constant (2-32-00) to the *vāra-tithi* correction (5-0-10), we have 7-32-10, being the *vārādi* (week, day etc.) correction for the point of time taken for consideration. For the *nakṣatra* of that point of time, add the *nakṣatra* constant (2-11-00) to the *nakṣatra* correction (got in verses 6-8a), i.e. 7-30-38, and we have the *nakṣatra* as 9-41-38. In other words, at the point of time taken, nine *nakṣatras* have passed by, and in the current 10th *nakṣatra*, maghā, it is 41 *nāḍikās* and 38 *vināḍikās*.

[9]:

Adding the *tithi* constant (2-32-00) to the *vāra-tithi* correction (5-0-10). we get 7-32-10 for the week, day, which means that 7 days have elapsed as / counted from Sunday, and at the point of time in consideration, i.e. Śuklapratipad in Vaiśākha, it is Sunday at 32 *nāḍikās* and 10 *vināḍikās* (Mean).

[10]:

The *nāḍikā* corrections enunciated are:

Tithi |
Nāḍikā corr. |
Tithi |
Nāḍikā corr. |

14 | 0 | 1 | +5 |

13 | -5 | 2 | +10 |

12 | -10 | 3 | +15 |

11 | -15 | 4 | +19 |

10 | -19 | 5 | +22 |

9 | -22 | 6 | +24 |

8 | -24 | 7 | +25 |

[11]:

The *vikālā* corrections enunciated are:

Month |
Divisor |
Corr. |
Month |
Divisor |
Corr. |

Karkaṭaka | 6 | +12" | Makara | 6 | -12" |

Siṃha | 4 | +40" | Kumbha | 4 | -40" |

Kanyā | 3 | +50" | Mīna | 3 | -50" |

Tulā | 3 | +50" | Meṣa | 3 | -50" |

Vṛścika | 4 | +40" | Ṛṣabha | 4 | -40" |

Dhanus | 6 | +12" | Mithuna | 6 | -12" |

[12]:

For the third *tithi* correction, multiply the *tithi-nāḍikās*, 32-10 (of verses 9b-10) by 3 (i.e. 96-30), and deduct a sixth thereof (i.e. 16-5), resulting in 80-25. Adding to this the *tithi-nāḍikās* (32-10), we get 112-35. The correction for one *tithi* (viz. 5 *nāḍikās*, of verse 11-14a) being applied negatively, we get 107-35. Dividing it by 60, the true *nāḍikās* in the current *tithi* is got at 47-35.

[13]:

*Yogas* form variable divisions of time during which the joint motion of the Sun and the Moon in longitude is 13° 20' or 800 *kalās*. In a cycle there are 27 *yogas*, some of them being considered as auspicious and others inauspicious. Their significances are taken due note of in deciding upon the times for rituals and domestic ceremonies. The 27 *yogas* are:

- Viṣkambha,
- Prīti,
- Āyuṣmān,
- Saubhāgya,
- Śobhana,
- Atigaṇḍa,
- Sukarmā,
- Dhṛti,
- Śūla,
- Gaṇḍa,
- Vṛddhi,
- Dhruva,
- Vyāghāta,
- Harṣaṇa,
- Vajra,
- Siddhi,
- Vyatīpāta,
- Varīyān,
- Parigh,
- Śiv,
- Siddh,
- Sādhy,
- Śubh,
- Śukr,
- Brahm,
- Indr,
- Vaidhṛt.

Multiplying the true *tithi* (viz. 47-35 of verses 19-20) by 4 (i.e. 190-20) and adding a third of the *tithi* (viz. 15-52), we get 206-12. Dividing by 27 (which is the total number of *yogas* in a cycle) and rejecting the quotient, we have 7-12. i.e. 7 *yogas* up to Sukarmā have gone by and, in the current 8thyoga, Dhṛti, 12 *nāḍikās* too are over.

[14]:

In the alternative method of calculating the *yoga*, the longitudes of the Sun and the Moon are added and the sum divided by 800 (which is the said sum in terms of six *kalās*). The quotient will give the number of the *yogas* elapsed and the remainder the *nāḍikās* etc. elapsed in the current *yoga*.

[15]:

The *Karaṇa* is a measure of time extending over half a *tithi*, having astrological significance. They carry eleven names, being: (1) Bava, (2) Bālava, (3) Kaulava, (4) Taitila, (5) Gara., (6) Vaṇija, (7) Viṣṭi, (8) Śakuni, (9) Catuṣpada, (10) Nāga and (11) Kiṃstughna. A cycle consists of 60 *karaṇas* (during the 30 *tithis* or 60 half-*tithis*). The last four *karaṇas* occur only once and occupy the four half-*tithis* from the second half of the 14th of the dark fortnight to the first half of the/1st *tithi* of the bright fortnight, and, so, are called *sthira* or ‘fixed’ *karaṇas*, while the other seven *karaṇas* occupy the remaining 56 half-*tithis*, by repeating themselves eight times, and, so, are called *cala* or ‘moving’ *karaṇas*.