Nikshepa, Nikṣepa: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nikshepa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Nikṣepa can be transliterated into English as Niksepa or Nikshepa, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Nikshep.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप) refers to “deposits”, and is commonly classified as one of the eighteen vyavahārapada, or “law titles” in the ancient Dharmaśāstras. These vyavahārapadas are categories of ‘legal procedures’ and define a major type of crime for which a person may be tried. The term is derived from vyavahāra (“lawsuits” or “case”) which defines the case between the plaintiff and the defendant, which is often related to social and commercial transactions.

Nikṣepa is mentioned in the following sources as one of the eighteen vyavahārapadas: the Manusmṛti (8.4-7) and the Nāradasmṛti (mātṛkā 1.30). In the Arthaśāstra this is known as Aupanidhika and in the Yājñavalkyasmṛti as Upanidhi.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Nikshepa in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप).—Deposit; loss of, must be made good; failure to return deposit and false claim to it to be punished like theft with a fine of twice the amount involved.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 227. 1-2.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप) refers to “placing” or “representation” and it is one of the factors making up the 108 kinds of adhikaraṇa (‘substratum’) of the non-living beings (ajīva). This substratum (instruments of inflow) represents the foundation or the basis of an entity.

Nikṣepa is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप) refers to “four aspects”, according to the first book (ādīśvara-caritra) [chapter 1] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism. Accordingly, “[...] we worship the Arhats, who at all times and all places purify the people of the three worlds by their name (nāma), representation (sthāpanā), substance (dravya), and actual existence (bhāva)”.

Everything is to be considered from four aspects (nikṣepa):

  1. nāma,
  2. sthāpanā (more usual term than the ākṛti of the text),
  3. dravya,
  4. bhāva.

In regard to a Tīrthaṅkara, nāma is the name, i.e., the mere word, and its repetition calls up his figure before the mind; sthāpanā, the representation, refers to any material representation of a Tīrthaṅkara; dravya, substance (in the case of a human being it is the ‘soul’), is the essential qualities that will be transformed into a Tīrthaṅkara in the future; bhāva, actual existence, is when he actually becomes a Tīrthaṅkara. (cf. Anuyogadvāra. 8, p. 10f; Outlines of Jainism p. 74).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप, “placing”).—What is meant by placing (nikṣepa)? To place /keep articles on floor etc is called placing. Placing is of four types namely:

  1. quick (sahasā),
  2. carelessly (anābhoga),
  3. without inspection (apratyavekṣita),
  4. disinterested (duḥpramṛṣṭa).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप, “presentation”).—What is meant by nikṣepa (gateways of investigations by installing/ presenting / positionig)? Nikṣepa is the entry /starting points for investigation of truth and its categories. It is also called nyāsa /trust.

There are four:

  1. name-position (nāma-nikṣepa),
  2. symbols (sthāpanā-nikṣepa),
  3. substance/ potentiality presentation (dravya-nikṣepa),
  4. mode / actuality presentation (bhāva-nikṣepa).
Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप, “position”) refers to one of the “four doors” explained in the Anuyogadvārasūtra: a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—Its title can be understood as meaning ‘the doors of exposition’. This stresses that the text focuses on the ways of approaching and understanding concepts. There are four doors [viz., nikṣepa, ‘position’].

This nikṣepa consists of: name – nāma; arbitrary attribution – sthāpanā; substance – dravya; essence – bhāva.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nikṣepa.—cf. nidhi-nikṣepa (IE 8-5; HRS), deposits and finds on the soil (probably including beehives, cf. alīpaka, nidhāna); deposits; same as upanidhi; one of the eight kinds of enjoyment of the property allowed to the donees of rent-free land; sometimes wrongly explained as a treasure-trove (SITI). See nidhi. Note: nikṣepa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nikṣēpa (निक्षेप).—m (S) Placing, putting, depositing. 2 A deposit or trust: also a pledge or pawn. 3 A buried or hidden treasure.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nikṣēpa (निक्षेप).—m Placing. A deposit or trust. A buried treasure.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप).—

1) Throwing or casting on (with acc.); अलं मान्यानां व्याख्यानेषु कटाक्षनिक्षेपेण (alaṃ mānyānāṃ vyākhyāneṣu kaṭākṣanikṣepeṇa) S. D.2.

2) A deposit, pledge, pawn in general; निक्षेपे पतिते हर्म्ये श्रेष्ठी स्तौति स्वदेवताम् । निक्षेपी म्रियते तुभ्यं प्रदास्याम्युपयाचितम् (nikṣepe patite harmye śreṣṭhī stauti svadevatām | nikṣepī mriyate tubhyaṃ pradāsyāmyupayācitam) || Pt.1.14; Ms.8.4.

3) Anything deposited without a seal in trust or as a compensation, an open deposit; समक्षं तु निक्षेपणं निक्षेपः (samakṣaṃ tu nikṣepaṇaṃ nikṣepaḥ) Mitā. on Y.2.67.

4) Sending away.

5) Throwing away, abandoning.

6) Wiping, drying.

7) Treasure-trove; निक्षेपस्वर्णसंपूर्णकटाहजठरां धराम् (nikṣepasvarṇasaṃpūrṇakaṭāhajaṭharāṃ dharām) Śiva. B.3.6.

Derivable forms: nikṣepaḥ (निक्षेपः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप).—(m.; compare next; presumably n. act. to prec., 1, q.v.), working out mathematical problems(?), in stock lists of arts, (gaṇanāyāṃ mudrāyām uddhāre nyāse) nikṣepe Divyāvadāna 3.19; 26.12; 58.17; 100.2; 441.28; same spelled niḥkṣepe Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.20.1; (lipiśāstra-mudrā-saṃkhyā)- gaṇanā-nikṣepādīni Daśabhūmikasūtra 45.22. See also nyāsa, nyasana; compare also nikṣepa-lipi (here in diff. sense).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप).—m.

(-paḥ) 1. A pledge, a deposit in general, or one which is counted or particularised in presence of the receiver, and left without cover or seal. 2. Abandoning, parting with, throwing away. 3. sending or putting away. 4. Wiping, drying. E. ni prefixed to kṣipa to throw or reject, affix ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप).—i. e. ni-kṣip + a, m. 1. Casting on, Sāh. D. 18, 14. 2. A deposit, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप).—[masculine] putting down, placing, throwing, casting (also ṇa [neuter]); deposit, pledge, trust ([jurisprudence]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nikṣepa (निक्षेप):—[=ni-kṣepa] [from ni-kṣip] m. putting down, [Hemacandra’s Yoga-śāstra] ([especially] of the feet, [Kālidāsa])

2) [v.s. ...] throwing or casting on ([locative case] or [compound]), [Meghadūta; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] a deposit, pledge, trust, anything pawned, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] abandoning, throwing or sending away, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] wiping, drying, [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप):—(paḥ) 1. m. A pledge, a deposit, a throwing away; wiping off.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप):—(von kṣip mit ni) m.

1) das Werfen auf (loc.): alamupajīvyānāṃ mānyānāṃ vyākhyāneṣu kaṭākṣanikṣepeṇa [Sāhityadarpana 18, 14.] —

2) Depositum, ein zur Aufbewahrung anvertrauter Gegenstand [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 870.] [Halāyudha 1, 82.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 4. 149. 179. 181. 185. 188. 190. fgg. 194. 11, 57. 88.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 67.] [Nalopākhyāna 20, 23.] [Śākuntala 97, v. l.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 7, 79.] [Pañcatantra I, 16. 7, 16. 100, 1. 3.] rahasya [Vikramorvaśī 18, 6.] —

3) in nikṣepalipi [Rgva tch’er rol pa 122] dem Anscheine nach Nomen proprium einer Gegend; vgl. utkṣepa, prakṣepa, vikṣepa ebend.

--- OR ---

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप):—

1) das Niedersetzen (des Fusses) [Spr. 991.] pakṣanikṣepa das Stellen auf die Seite von, das Rechnen zu, das Halten für eine Art von: sukhasya sātiśayatayā u.s.w. duḥkhapakṣanikṣepāt [SARVADARŚANAS. 118, 13. fgg.] tasmānna vṛttinirodho yogapakṣanikṣepamarhati [164, 2.]

--- OR ---

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप):—

1) das Niedersetzen, Hinstellen [Hemacandra] [Yogaśāstra 1, 34.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Nikṣepa (निक्षेप):—m.

1) das Niedersetzen , Hinstellen , Daraufwerfen [Meghadūta] pakṣanikṣepa das Stellen auf die Seite von , das Rechnen zu , das Halten für eine Art von.

2) das Werfen — , Richten des Auges (im Comp. vorangehend) auf *Loc.). —

3) Depositum , ein zur Aufbewahrung anvertrauter Gegenstand.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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