Nigraha, Nigrāha: 25 definitions


Nigraha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Natya Shastra

Nigraha (निग्रह, “arrest”).—One of the two ways of working the tāna in the string (tantrī):—The arrest (nigraha) is non-touching, i.e., not touching the madhyama note. The mūrchanā is indicated by the Madhyama note of the vīṇā, because it is constant (anāśī. lit. not perishable).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Nigraha (निग्रह):—Retention, Stiffness, Restriction

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to “curse”, according to the Bhairavīstotra in the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Victory! Victory (to you) O goddess (bhagavatī)! [...] (You are) Bhairavī whose being is (infinitely) great. (You are) the All and, (universally) pervasive, (are also) Revatī. O (you) who can bestow the means to both grace (anugraha) and curse (nigraha)! [...]”.

2) Nigraha (निग्रह) or Nigrahaṣaṭka refers to the “restraint”—(Cf. Ṣaṭprakārā, Ṣaṭka), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “He should worship Vajrakubjeśvarī who resides in the Sequence of Twenty-eight within the group of six in the middle conjoined with ḌĀ (Ḍākinī), RĀ (Rākinī), LĀ (Lākinī), KĀ (Kākinī), SĀ (Śākinī), and HĀ (Hākinī) (This is group of the six restraints—nigraha-ṣaṭka). He should worship (this) with the Kula Peak and the aforementioned seed-syllable of each one”.

3) Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to one of the eight Guardians (kṣetrapāla-aṣṭaka) associated with Candrapīṭha (or Candrapīṭhapura), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Guardians (kṣetrapālāṣṭaka): Niśānta, Nigraha, Dhanañjaya, Dhaneśvara, Karāla, Vaḍavāmukha, Vikarāla, Sugrīva.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Nigraha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

1) Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to one of the ten Niyamas (restraint) prescribed for forest dwelling, as mentioned in the Vaikhānasasmārtasūtra.—The Mānasollāsa verse 9.21-24ab lists thirty Yamas and Niyamas. The Vaikhānasasmārtasūtra (8.4), whose date has been estimated between the fourth and eighth centuries, is the earliest source for a list of twenty Yamas and Niyamas [e.g., nigraha]. These were prescribed to a sage at the forest dwelling (vanāśrama) stage of life.

2) Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to the “restraint” (of the mind and senses), according to the Yogatārāvalī: a short Yoga text of twenty-nine verses presenting Haṭhayoga as the means to Rājayoga (i.e., Samādhi).—Accordingly, while describing the no-mind state: “When the movement of the breath is quashed through the prolonged restraint (cira-nigraha) of the mind and senses, the bodies of the best Yogins become still like a lamp in a windless place and their minds are immersed in the no-mind [state]”.

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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to the “slaying (wicked persons)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.11 (“The Victory of Kumāra”).—Accordingly, as Kumuda (son of Śeṣa) said to Kumāra (son of Śiva): “O excellent son of great lord, lord of the gods, O great chief, I am afflicted by Pralamba and am seeking refuge in you. O Kumāra, O Skanda, O lord of the gods, O great lord, O slayer of Tāraka, save me harassed by the Asura Pralamba and seeking refuge in you. You are the kinsman of the distressed, the ocean of mercy, favourably disposed to the devotees, the slayer of the wicked (khala-nigraha), worthy of refuge and the goal of the good. [...]”.

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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Nigraha in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

1) Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to the “cure (of diseases)” (of Hawks), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the importance of hawks]: “Now will be described the quantity of their food, the way of tending them at different seasons, their diseases and their cure (nigraha). Twenty-five ṭaṅkas of fresh flesh is quite enough for a Kuhī, Caraka, Vāja, and Vaharī. The Śaśādas should not be given less, for they are incapable of fasting. [...]”.

2) Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to the “killing (of a bird)”, according to the Śyainika-śāstra.—Accordingly, [while discussing the outlines of hawking]: “[...] When two birds fly together and one is killed (eka-nigraha), the survivor mourns pitifully. This excites the emotion of sorrow. In the king, the lover’s emotion is discernible in two conditions, that of enjoyment when the quarry is caught, and that of separation when it escapes. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: A History of Indian Logic (Buddhist Philosophy)

Nigraha (निग्रह) or Nigrahasthāna refers to the “points of defeat”, according to Upāyakauśalyahṛdaya, an ancient work on the art of debate composed by Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna.—In Chinese this work is called Fan-pien-sin-lun. It was translated into Chinese by Ci-cia-ye and Than-yao in A.D. 472.—Seeing that the Vaiśeṣika and other systems were obscure in their terminology, Nāgārjuna, it is reported, undertook to write this book to give a clear exposition of the art of debate. The book is divided into four chapters styled respectively as (I) an elucidation of debate (vāda-visadīkaraṇa), (II) an explanation of the points of defeat (nigraha-sthāna), (III) an explanation of the truths (tattva-vyākhyāna), and (IV) the analogue or far-fetched analogy (jāti).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to “that which is untenable”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “Fire (agni) burns things by itself without depending on a person (pudgala). We say that a man burns something only metaphorically. You have fallen into an untenable position (nigraha-sthāna). Why? Because the soul (puruṣa) is the person (pudgala) and you cannot compare the person with the person”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to the “subjugation (of hostile Nāgas)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Bhagavān said to the Garuḍa-king]: “O great Garuḍa chief, the Vajra Beak dhāraṇī is empowered by me, it is empowered by ten million hundred thousand Tathāgatas, Arhats and Perfectly Awakened Ones, equalling the sand particles of the Gaṅgā river. Expound this, O Garuḍa chief, for the sake of the subjugation (nigraha-artha) of hostile Nāgas”.

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (Tibetan Buddhism)

Nigraha (निग्रह) refers to a “curse”, according to verse 14.24bd-27 of the Laghuśaṃvara, an ancient Buddhist Yoginī Tantra.—Accordingly, [while describing the Siddhi of speech]: “The Sādhaka [who has] the Siddhi of speech can certainly attract a king or queen by [merely] thinking [it]. He quickly controls gods, demons and men. When angry, he can kill with his speech and drive away his adversary. The practitioner can thus effect a curse (nigraha) with his speech. And he can stop a river, a cart, a machine [like a water-wheel,] the ocean, elephants and horses, clouds, a man or bird merely by means of his speech. He achieves everything which he desires by his speech”.

Note: For the meaning of nigraha as a curse in the context of Siddhis, see Vasudeva (2011b: 268 n. 20). As noted in section, the Siddhi of effecting a favour or curse (śāpānugraha) is mentioned in earlier Śaiva works such as the Brahmayāmala, the Vijñānabhairavatantra and the Skandapurāṇa-Ambikākhaṇḍa.

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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Nigraha (निग्रह) (in Prakrit: Ṇiggaha). refers to “arresting”—Mūlācāra 744 (vol. 2, p. 26), for instance, states that wrong belief, lack of restraint, passions, and activities of body, mind and speech are prevented by right faith, restraint, arresting (ṇiggaha/nigraha) and control, respectively. Bārasa Aṇupekkhā 61-3 include similar statements.—Cf. Hemacandra (Yogaśāstra 4.81-5 [vol. 2, p. 871-3]).

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nigraha.—(EI 27), ‘reducer’. Cf. also koṭṭa-nigraha. Note: nigraha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nigraha (निग्रह).—m (S) Restraint or repression; binding, confining, holding fast. 2 Determinedness, firmness, tenacity (of purpose or opinion). 3 Capture, seizure, arrest.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nigraha (निग्रह).—m Restraint or repression; bind- ing, confining. Determinedness, firmness, tenacity. Capture, seizure, arrest.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nigraha (निग्रह).—1 Keeping in check, restraint, curbing, subjection; as in इन्द्रियनिग्रह (indriyanigraha) Manusmṛti 6.92; Y.1.222; Bhartṛhari 1.66; चञ्चलं मनः (cañcalaṃ manaḥ)...... तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोरिव सुदुष्करम् (tasyāhaṃ nigrahaṃ manye vāyoriva suduṣkaram) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 6.34; तस्य ता वपुषाक्षिप्ता निग्रहार्थं जजृम्भिरे (tasya tā vapuṣākṣiptā nigrahārthaṃ jajṛmbhire) Bu. Ch.4.6.

2) Suppression, obstruction, putting down; तथेन्द्रियाणां दह्यन्ते दोषाः प्राणस्य निग्रहात् (tathendriyāṇāṃ dahyante doṣāḥ prāṇasya nigrahāt) Manusmṛti 6.71.

3) Overtaking, capturing, arresting; त्वन्निग्रहे तु वरगात्रि न मे प्रयत्नः (tvannigrahe tu varagātri na me prayatnaḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 1. 22; Śiśupālavadha 2.88.

4) Confinement, imprisonment.

5) Defeat, overthrow, vanquishing.

6) Dispelling, destruction, removing; दिनमुखानि रविर्हिमनिग्रहैर्विमलयन् मलयं नगम- त्यजत् (dinamukhāni ravirhimanigrahairvimalayan malayaṃ nagama- tyajat) R.9.25;15.6; Kumārasambhava 5.53.

7) Arresting of disease, cure.

8) Punishment (opp. anugraha) निग्राहानु- ग्रहस्य कर्ता (nigrāhānu- grahasya kartā) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1; निग्रहोऽप्ययमनुग्रहीकृतः (nigraho'pyayamanugrahīkṛtaḥ) R.11.9,55;12. 52,63.

9) Rebuke, reprimand, blame.

1) Aversion, dislike, disgust.

11) (In Nyāya phil.) A flaw in an argument, a fault in a syllogism (by which a disputant is put down in argument); cf. Mu.5.1.

12) A handle.

13) A limit, boundary.

14) The Supreme Being.

15) Transgressing (atilaṅghana); निग्रहाद्धर्मशास्त्राणा- मनुरुद्ध्यन्नपेतभीः (nigrahāddharmaśāstrāṇā- manuruddhyannapetabhīḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.24.13.

Derivable forms: nigrahaḥ (निग्रहः).

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Nigrāha (निग्राह).—

1) Punishment.

2) An imprecation; as in निग्राहस्ते भूयात् (nigrāhaste bhūyāt) 'confusion seize thee !'; Bhaṭṭikāvya 7.43.

Derivable forms: nigrāhaḥ (निग्राहः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigraha (निग्रह).—m.

(-haḥ) 1. Aversion, disfavour, discouragement, dislike. 2. Abusing. 3. Binding, confinement, capture, arrest, 4. A binding, a tie. 5. Restraint, subjection. 6. Suppression, putting down. 7. A boundary, a limit. 8. Administering medicine. 9. Killing. 10. A name of Krishna. 11. Removing. 12. A flaw in an argument. 13. A handle. E. ni before, grah to take or seize, affix ap.

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Nigrāha (निग्राह).—m.

(-haḥ) Aversion, &c. used as an imprecation, as, nigrāhaste bhūyāt confusion seize you, &c. E. ni before, grah to seize, affix ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigraha (निग्रह).—[ni-grah + a], m. 1. Seizing, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 10, 21. 2. Confinement, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 22, 21. 3. Subduing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 175. 4. Suppression, restraining, 6, 71; 302. 5. Chastising, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 18, 36. 6. A name of Śiva, Mahābhārata 13, 1179.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigraha (निग्रह).—[masculine] seizing, holding, restraining, subduing; chastisement, punishment, censure, blame.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nigraha (निग्रह):—[=ni-graha] [from ni-grah] m. keeping down or back, restraining, binding, coercion, suppression, subjugation, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] defeat, overthrow, destruction, [Kāvya literature]

3) [v.s. ...] seizing, catching, arresting, holding fast, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] suppression of an illness id est. healing, cure, [Suśruta]

5) [v.s. ...] confinement, imprisonment, any punishment or chastisement, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Pañcatantra] etc. (vadhanigt, pain of death, [Kathāsaritsāgara])

6) [v.s. ...] reprimand, blame, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] aversion, ill-will, dislike, disgust, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] anything for catching hold of, a handle (ifc. f(ā). ), [Suśruta]

9) [v.s. ...] a place or occasion for being caught hold of, ([especially] in Nyāya [philosophy]) an occasion for refutation, a weak point in an argument or fault in a syllogism (cf. -sthāna)

10) [v.s. ...] a boundary, limit, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva and Viṣṇu-Kṛṣṇa, [Mahābhārata]

12) Nigrāha (निग्राह):—[=ni-grāha] [from ni-grah] m. punishment, chastisement, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya] ([especially] used in imprecations e.g. ni-grāhas te bhūyāt, confusion seize thee, [Pāṇini 3-3, 45; Kāśikā-vṛtti])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nigraha (निग्रह):—[ni-graha] (haḥ) 1. m. Aversion, disfavour; blaming; binding; suppression; a limit; physicking; killing; Krishna.

2) Nigrāha (निग्राह):—[ni-grāha] (haḥ) 1. m. Curse.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nigraha (निग्रह) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇiggaha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nigraha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nigraha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nigraha (निग्रह) [Also spelled nigrah]:—(nm) restraint; self-repression; subdual; ~[vāda] rigorism; hence ~[vādī] (a, nm).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nigraha (ನಿಗ್ರಹ):—

1) [noun] a keeping in check; a curbing; restraint; a curbing.

2) [noun] a vexing or being vexed; vexation.

3) [noun] a punishing or being punished; punishment.

4) [noun] the act of defeating; a defeat.

5) [noun] pain, distress or suffering.

6) [noun] the limit or boundary of something.

7) [noun] something owed by one person or another; debt; loan.

8) [noun] a severe rebuke; reprimand; blame.

9) [noun] an arresting or being arrested.

10) [noun] the Supreme Being; the God.

11) [noun] that part of a tool, weapon etc. which is to be held while using it; the handle.

12) [noun] a treating of a disease.

13) [noun] an intense dislike; aversion; repugnance.

14) [noun] a fault in an argument by which the arguer is defeated.

15) [noun] (dance.) a kind of action of the hand used in expressing the action of restraining.

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Nigrāha (ನಿಗ್ರಾಹ):—[noun] = ನಿಗ್ರಹ - [nigraha -] 2,3 & 8.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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