Gama, Gāma: 20 definitions


Gama means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Gama (गम) refers to the “setting (of the sun)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Sentient beings, inflamed by very intense pleasure [and] unsteady from affliction by wrong faith, wander about in a five-fold life that is difficult to be traversed. It has been stated at length that the cycle of rebirth which is full of suffering is five-fold on account of combining substance , place, right time [com.—time (kālaḥ) is characterised by the progressive half of the cycle of time, etc. (utsarpiṇyādilakṣaṇaḥ) or indicated by the setting and rising of the sun, etc. (sūryagamāgamādivyaṅgyaḥ)], life and intention”.

Source: SOAS Research Online: Prekṣā meditation: History and Methods

Gama (गम) refers to “accessible”; as opposed to Agama—“ inaccessible” which refers to one of the 46 qualities of the soul to be meditated on in the “Practice of Meditation on Liberated Souls (Siddhas)”, according to Jain texts like Ācārāṅga (5.6.123-140), Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama ( and Samayasāra (1.49).—The pure soul can be recognised by meditation on its true nature, represented by the liberated souls of the Siddhas. [...] The qualities of the soul to be meditated on as truly mine are: [e.g., My soul is inaccessible (a-gama)] [...] The meditation on such extended fourty-five qualities of the pure soul presents the niśacaya-naya, which is aligned with Kundakunda’s approach.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 1963

Gāma is the name of a locality that existed in the ancient kingdom of Anurādhapura, Ceylon (Sri Lanka).—The Taraccha tank was built in Devānaṃpiya Tissa’s reign (B.C. 247-207) was in or close to Anurādhapura: also close to the City were:—(i) Hakaragoḍa; (ii) Ilubarata; and (iii) Gāma.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

gāma : (m.) village.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Gāma, (Vedic grāma, heap, collection, parish; *grem to comprise; Lat. gremium; Ags. crammian (E. cram), Obulg. gramada (village community) Ohg. chram; cp. *ger in Gr. a)geirw, a)gorά, Lat, grex.) a collection of houses, a hamlet (cp. Ger. gemeinde), a habitable place (opp. arañña: gāme vā yadi vâraññe Sn.119), a parish or village having boundaries & distinct from the surrounding country (gāmo ca gāmupacāro ca Vin.I, 109, 110; III, 46). In size varying, but usually small & distinguished from nigama, a market-town. It is the smallest in the list of settlements making up a “state” (raṭṭhaṃ). See definition & description at Vin.III, 46, 200. It is the source of support for the bhikkhus, and the phrase gāmaṃ piṇḍāya carati “to visit the parish for alms” is extremely frequent.—1. a village as such: Vin.I, 46; Ārāmika°, Pilinda° Vin.I, 28, 29 (as Ārāmikagāmaka & Pilinda-gāmaka at Vin.III, 249); Sakyānaṃ gāme janapade Lumbineyye Sn.683; Uruvela° Pv.II, 1318; gāmo nâtikālena pavisitabbo M.I, 469; °ṃ raṭṭhañ ca bhuñjati Sn.619, 711; gāme tiṃsa kulāni honti J.I, 199;— Sn.386, 929, 978; J.II, 153; VI, 366; Dh.47, 49; Dhs.697 (suñño g.); PvA.73 (gāme amaccakula); 67 (gāmassa dvārasamīpena).—gāmā gāmaṃ from hamlet to hamlet M.II, 20; Sn.180 (with nagā nagaṃ; expl. SnA 216 as devagāmā devagāmaṃ), 192 (with purā puraṃ); Pv.II, 1318. In the same sense gāmena gāmaṃ Nd2 177 (with nigamena n°, nagarena n°., raṭṭhena r°., janapadena j°.).—2. grouped with nigama, a market-town: gāmanigamo sevitabbo or asevitabbo A.IV, 365 sq., cp. V.101 (w. janapadapadeso);— Vin.III, 25, 184 (°ṃ vā nigamaṃ vā upanissāya); IV, 93 (piṇḍāya pavisati); gāmassa vā nigamassa vā avidūre D.I, 237; M.I, 488; gāme vā nigame vā Pug.66.—3. as a geographical-political unit in the constitution of a kingdom, enumerated in two sets: (a) gāma-nigamarājadhāniyo Vin.III, 89; A.III, 108; Nd2 271III; Pv.II, 1318; DhA.I, 90.—(b) gāma-nigama-nagara-raṭṭha-janapada Nd2 177, 304III (°bandhana), 305 (°kathā); with the foll. variations: g. nigama nagara M.II, 33—40; g. nigama janapada Sn.995; Vism.152; gāmāni nigamāni ca Sn.118 (explained by SnA 178: ettha ca saddena nagarāni ti pi vattabbaṃ).—See also dvāra°; paccanta°; bīja°; bhūta°; mātu°.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gama (गम).—m f ( A Sorrow &c.) Forbearance, overlooking, passing by or putting up with (an offence). v khā, kara, yē. 2 m unc (gamya S?) Drift, scope, bearing, leaning (as of a speech). 3 A pause, rest, short ceasing. v khā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gama (गम).—m f Forbearance, overlooking, pass- ing by or putting up with (an offence). v khā, kara. A pause, short ceasing. v khā.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gama (गम).—a. [gam bhāvādau ap] (At the end of comp.) Going, moving, going to, reaching, attaining, getting &c.; खगम, पुरोगम, हृदयंगम (khagama, purogama, hṛdayaṃgama), &c.

-maḥ 1 Going, moving.

2) March; आदरेण गमं चक्रुर्विषमेष्वप्यसङ्घसाः (ādareṇa gamaṃ cakrurviṣameṣvapyasaṅghasāḥ) Bhaṭṭikāvya 7.56; अश्वस्यैकाहगमः (aśvasyaikāhagamaḥ).

3) The march of an assailant.

4) A road.

5) Inconsiderateness, thoughtlessness.

6) Superficiality, careless perusal.

7) (Sexual) intercourse with a woman, cohabitation; गुर्वङ्गनागमः (gurvaṅganāgamaḥ) Manusmṛti 11.55; Y.2.293.

8) A game played with dice and men.

9) Removal (as of fraction in math.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gama (गम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Going, moving. 2. March, especially the march of an assailant. 3. A road. 4. A game played with dice and men, as backgammon, &c. 5. Acting inconsiderately, looking at any thing hastily and superficially. 6. Reading lightly, hasty or careless perusal, running over a book, &c. E. gam to go, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gama (गम).—[gam + a], I. latter part of comp. words, f. , Going, e. g. kha-, 1. adj. Moving in the sky, Mahābhārata 3, 820. 2. m. A bird, [Nala] 1, 24. 3. m. A proper name, Mahābhārata 1, 995. Ii. m. 1. Way, Chanrap. 44. 2. Carnal approaching, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 54.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gama (गम).—[adjective] going to or in (—°); [masculine] going, march, approach, cohabitation.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gama (गम):—[from gam] mf(ā)n. ([Pāṇini 3-3, 58]) ifc. going (e.g. araṃ-, kāma-, kha-, tiryag-, etc.)

2) [v.s. ...] riding on (in [compound]), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 11, 718]

3) [v.s. ...] m. going, course, [Pāṇini 5-2, 19]

4) [v.s. ...] march, decampment, [Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā iv, 58]

5) [v.s. ...] intercourse with a woman (in [compound]), [Manu-smṛti xi, 55; Yājñavalkya ii, 293]

6) [v.s. ...] going away from ([ablative]), [Caurapañcāśikā]

7) [v.s. ...] (in [mathematics]) removal (as of fractions), [Bījagaṇita]

8) [v.s. ...] a road, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] flightiness, superficiality, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] hasty perusal, [Horace H. Wilson]

11) [v.s. ...] a game played with dice and men (as backgammon etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a similar reading in two texts, [Jaina literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gama (गम):—(maḥ) 1. m. Going; march; a road.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gama (गम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: , Gama, Jāma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Gama (गम) [Also spelled gam]:—(nm) grief, woe; tolerance; ~[khora] tolerant, enduring; ~[khorī] tolerance, endurance; ~[gīna] gloomy, full of sorrow; ~[jadā] grieved; sorrow-stricken, afflicted; ~[nāka] sorrowful, woeful; —[khānā] to be tolerant, to endure; —[galata karanā] to comfort/solace oneself; to drown (one’s) sorrows in an intoxicant.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Gama (गम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Gam.

2) Gama (गम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Gama.

3) Gama (गम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Gama.

4) Gama (गम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Gama.

5) Gāma (गाम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Grāma.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gama (ಗಮ):—

1) [noun] a sweet smell; pleasant odour; fragrance; ಗಮಗಮ ಅನ್ನು [gamagama annu] gama gama a nnu to emit pleasant smell; to be fragrant.

2) [noun] to have or be filled with, a pleasant odour.

--- OR ---

Gama (ಗಮ):—

1) [noun] the act of going, moving, walking.

2) [noun] the quality of acting or doing suddenly with little thought; rashness; impulsiveness; impetuousness.

3) [noun] lack of full knowledge.

--- OR ---

Gāma (ಗಾಮ):—[noun] a more or less concentrated group of houses, larger than a village but smaller than a city; a town.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Gama (गम):—n. 1. sadness; sorrow; anxiety; grief; 2. regret; care; concern;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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