Masura, Masūra, Māsūra: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Masura means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Masūra (मसूर) is a Sanskrit word referring to Lens culinaris (“lentil”). It is a type of legume (śamīdhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. It is also known as Masura (मसुर). The plant Masūra is part of the Śamīdhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of legumes”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Masūra is is light, cold, sweet, slightly astringent and roughening in character. It is beneficial for pitta and kapha and useful as pulses and pastes. Besides this, Masūra is constipating. In a different context, the word Masūra can refer to “a pillow”.

According to the Bhāvaprakāśa it has the following synonyms: Maṅgalyaka, Maṅgalyā and Masūrikā. The Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra.

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th century Ayurvedic work), the plant Masūra is mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter .

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Masūra (मसूर) refers to “lentils” and is listed as one of the varieties of pulses, according to the Vājasaneyisaṃhitā XVIII.12, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—In Vedic literature, different varieties of pulses like māṣa (black-gram), mudga (green-gram) and masūra (lentils) were referred to. But it is interesting that for some reason māṣa is not considered edible as it is despised for sacrificial purposes. [...] According to the authors of Purāṇa literature the use of rājamāṣa, masūra, niṣpāva and gram are interdicted in the śrāddha ritual (see Matsyapurāṇa 15.36-38). [...] According to Carakasaṃhitā, pulses such as mudga (green gram), masūra (lentil), caṇaka (hemp) and kalāya (pea) were parched and eaten.

Masūra or “lentils” is mentioned as being beneficial (hita) to the body according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala in the dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana, which contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. Here In the śimbīdhānya (legumes) group masūra (lentil) is mentioned as beneficial to the body (hita).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Masūra (मसूर) refers to Cicer lens and forms part of the cosmetics and personal decoration that was once commonly applied to one’s body in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Reference is made in the Nīlamata to various sorts of scents, perfumes, unguents, flowers and garlands. For example, Masūra—The powder of Masūra is an unguent (verse 422). Caraka mentions Māṣa and Masūra in Śamīdhānya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Masūra (मसूर).—Lentils unfit for śrāddha.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 6. 21; III. 16. 7.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Masūra (मसूर) is the name of a kind of lentil (Ervurn hirsutum) in the Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā and the Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Masūra (मसूर, “lentils”) refers to one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Masūra.—(ML), small-pox. Note: masūra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

masūra (मसूर).—f (S) A sort of pulse or lentil, Ervum hirsutum, and Cicer lens.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

masūra (मसूर).—f A sort of pulse or lentil.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Masura (मसुर) or Masūra (मसूर).—1 A kind of pulse.

2) A pillow.

-rā 1 A lentil.

2) A harlot.

Derivable forms: masuraḥ (मसुरः), masūraḥ (मसूरः).

--- OR ---

Māsūra (मासूर).—a. (- f.)

1) Lentil-shaped.

2) Made of pulse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Masura (मसुर).—mf.

(-raḥ-rā) A sort of pulse or lentil, (Ervum hirsutum, or Cicer lens.) f.

(-rā) A whore. E. mas to weigh, Unadi aff. urac; more usually masūra .

--- OR ---

Masūra (मसूर).—mf.

(-raḥ-rā) A sort of pulse or lentil, (Ervum hirsutum, and Cicer lens.) f.

(-rā) 1. A whore. 2. A lentil. f. (-rī) 1. Small pox. 2. A small round pillow. E. mas to weigh, Unadi aff. ūrac, masūra, the pulse; the other meanings refer to this, implying resemblance to the pea in figure, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Masura (मसुर).—masūra, 1. m., and f. , A sort of lentil, Ervum hirsutum, [Suśruta] 1, 24, 9; 26, 1 (?). 2. f. , A harlot.

Masura can also be spelled as Masūra (मसूर).

--- OR ---

Māsūra (मासूर).—i. e. masūra + a, adj., f. , Consisting, made of lentils or pulse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Masūra (मसूर).—[masculine] lentil.

--- OR ---

Māsūra (मासूर).—[feminine] ī lentil-shaped.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Masura (मसुर):—m. a sort of lentil or pulse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) Masurā (मसुरा):—[from masura] a f. See below.

3) [from masura] b f. = masura, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a harlot, courtezan, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Masūra (मसूर):—[from masura] m. = masura, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

6) [v.s. ...] a pillow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] f(ā and I). See below.

8) Masūrā (मसूरा):—[from masura] f. = masurā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Māsūra (मासूर):—mf(ī)n. ([from] masūra) lentil-shaped, [Suśruta]

10) made of lentils, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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