Mastaka: 23 definitions


Mastaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Mastak.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Mastaka (मस्तक):—[mastakaḥ] Head; Forehead

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to “roof (5th level of the elevation) §§ 3.27; 4.6.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to the “head”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—According to the Ṭīkā the length of the body is eighty-four finger-spans up to the end of the head [i.e., mastaka-avadhi]. Beyond that is the place of the Triple Peak Mountain—Trikūṭa—that covers twelve fingers’ space and is the End of the Twelve. Together they cover a distance equivalent to the width of ninety-six fingers.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to the “head (of lord Śiva)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.48 (“Description of Marriage of Śiva and Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Nārada said to Himavat (Himācala): “[...] Śiva was directly asked by you to mention His Gotra. On this occasion these words are utterly ridiculous and derisible. [...] The whole world consisting of the mobile and immobile has been deluded by Him in His divine sport. O excellent mountain, even the wisest of men does not know Him. The head (mastaka) of lord Śiva of phallic image was not seen by Brahma. Viṣṇu who went to the nether worlds did not see His foot. How surprised he was. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Mastaka).

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to the “head” and represents one of the items held in the left hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, mastaka]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to the “head”, according to chapter 50 of the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “Now, I will explain the characteristic of Mahākaṅkāla. [...] [The practitioner] devotes himself to the yogic union of churner and the churnable by means of the threads (viz., channels) in the middle of [his] navel region. [Awakening minds,] assuming the shape of the letter ha, [flow down] from [his] head (mastaka) appearing like single threads (viz., channels). [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to the “skull”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]— [...] (10). The Buddha has no loss of wisdom.—He has no loss of wisdom.—[...] Moreover, since his first production of the mind of awakening (prathama-cittotpāda) and for innumerable and incalculable periods (asaṃkhyeyakalpa), the Buddha has accumulated all the wisdoms and, in accordance with his high resolution (adhyāśaya), he has sacrificed his head (śiras), his eyes (nayana), his marrow (majjā) and his skull (mastaka), he has given all his inner and outer possessions, he has entered into fire, he has thrown himself down from mountains, he has flayed his skin, he has nailed his body, etc.; there is no suffering that he has not endured, careful to accumulate wisdom. This is why he has no loss of wisdom. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Mastaka (मस्तक) refers to the “summit (of a mountain)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This most powerful [and] cruel death devours against their will the life of those who possess a body that has settled in the middle world, in hell, in the world of Brahmā, in Indra’s abode, in the middle of the ocean, inside the forest, at all quarters of the globe, on a mountain-peak [com.parvata-mastaka—‘the summit of a mountain’], in a place difficult of access on account of fire, forest, cold, darkness, thunderbolts [and] swords, or in [a place] crowded with a troop of ruttish elephants”.

Synonyms: Śṛṅga.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mastaka (मस्तक).—m n (S) The head or skull. 2 The head or top of anything. Pr. dōna hastaka āṇi tisarā ma0 ma0 ṭhēṅgaṇēṃ karaṇēṃ To humble, abase, bring down.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mastaka (मस्तक).—m n The head or skull; the top.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mastaka (मस्तक).—[masmati parimātyanena mas-karaṇe ta svārthe ka Tv.]

1) The head, skull; अतिलोभा (atilobhā) (v. l. tṛṣṇā) भिभूतस्य चक्रं भ्रमति मस्तके (bhibhūtasya cakraṃ bhramati mastake) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.22.

2) The head or top of anything, peak, summit; न च पर्वतमस्तके (na ca parvatamastake) Manusmṛti 4.47; वृक्ष°, चुल्ली° (vṛkṣa°, cullī°) &c.

3) The tuft of leaves growing at the top of palm trees.

Derivable forms: mastakaḥ (मस्तकः), mastakam (मस्तकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mastaka (मस्तक).—mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) 1. The head, the skull. 2. The head or top of any thing. E. mas to weigh, aff. kta, and kan added.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mastaka (मस्तक).—[masta + ka], m. n. 1. The head, [Pañcatantra] 246, 14. 2. The top, the summit, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 47; [Pañcatantra] 262, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mastaka (मस्तक).—[masculine] [neuter] head, skull, top, point.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mastaka (मस्तक):—[from mas] m. n. ([Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 148 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) the head, skull, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the upper part of anything, top, summit ([especially] of mountains or trees), [ib.] (kam ind. = on the top of, upon e.g. cullī-mastakam, upon the hearth, [Pañcatantra])

3) [v.s. ...] the tuft of leaves which grows at the top of various species of palm trees, [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] form of Śiva, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mastaka (मस्तक):—[(kaḥ-kaṃ)] 1. m. n. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mastaka (मस्तक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Matthaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mastaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Mastaka in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mastaka (मस्तक) [Also spelled mastak]:—(nm) head; forehead; —[ūṃcā honā] to feel proud of, to raise one’s head high; —[jhukānā] to bow in reverence; to lower the head out of shame.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mastaka (ಮಸ್ತಕ):—

1) [noun] the head.

2) [noun] the top or extremeof something (as of a mountain or hill); the peak.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Mastaka (मस्तक):—n. 1. head; 2. peak; summit;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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