Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 13

Bu-Pc.13.1.1 BD.2.235 … at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding-place. Now at that time the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, assigned lodgings to the Order and distributed meals.[1] Now at that time monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka were newly ordained as well as of little merit; Vin.4.38 they obtained whatever inferior lodgings belonged to the Order and inferior meals.[2] These made monks look down upon[3] the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, saying:

“Dabba, the Mallian, assigns lodgings through favouritism[4] and distributes meals through favouritism.”

Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying:

“How can monks who are followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka make monks look down upon the venerable Dabba, the Mallian?” …

“Is it true, as is said, that you, monks, made monks look down upon Dabba, the Mallian?”

“It is true, lord.”

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them saying:

“How can you, foolish men, make monks look down upon Dabba, the Mallian? It is not, foolish men, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

“In making (someone) look down upon,[5] there is an offence of expiation.”

And thus this rule of training for monks came to be laid down by the lord.


Bu-Pc.13.2.1 BD.2.236 Now at that time monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka thought: “Making (someone) look down upon is forbidden by the lord, (but) this much shall the monks hear,” and in the neighbourhood of monks, they criticised[6] the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, saying:

“Dabba, the Mallian, assigns lodgings through favouritism and distributes meals through favouritism.”

Those who were modest monks … as in Bu-Pc.13.2.1 instead of “make monks look down upon” read “criticise” … “… And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

In making (someone) look down upon, in criticising,[7] there is an offence of expiation.”


Bu-Pc.13.3.1 Making (someone) look down upon means: if he makes (someone) look down upon or if he criticises one who is ordained, desiring to bring blame, desiring to bring discredit, desiring to bring shame[8] to one who is ordained (and) agreed upon by the Order as assigner of lodgings or as distributor of meals or as apportioner of conjey or as apportioner of fruit or as apportioner of solid foods or as disposer of trifles,[9] there is an offence of expiation.


Bu-Pc.13.3.2 If he thinks that it is a legally valid act when it is a legally valid act, in making (someone) look down BD.2.237 upon, in criticising, there is an offence of expiation. If he is in doubt as to whether it is a legally valid act, in making (someone) look down upon, in criticising, there is an offence of expiation. If he thinks that it is not a legally valid act when it is a legally valid act, in making (someone) look down upon, in criticising, there is an offence of expiation. If he makes (someone) look down upon or if he criticises one who is not ordained, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes (someone) look down upon or if he criticises one who is ordained or one who is not ordained, desiring to bring blame, desiring to bring discredit, desiring to bring shame to one who is ordained (but) not agreed upon by the Order as assigner of lodgings … as disposer of trifles Vin.4.39 there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes (someone) look down upon or if he criticises one who is ordained or one who is not ordained, desiring to blame, desiring to bring discredit, desiring to bring shame to one who is not ordained, (but) agreed upon or not agreed upon by the Order as assigner of lodgings … or as disposer of trifles, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that it is a legally valid act when it is not a legally valid act, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether it is not a legally valid act, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that it is not a legally valid act when it is not a legally valid act, there is no offence.[10]


Bu-Pc.13.3.3 There is no offence if he makes (someone) look down upon or if he criticises one acting by nature from desire, from hatred, from stupidity, from fear[11]; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.[12]

The Third

Footnotes and references:

3.

ujjhāpenti. Vin-a.770 says avajānāpenti avaññāya olokāpenti lāmakato vā cintāpentī ti attho; cf. above, BD.2.2, n.3, on ujjhāyanti.

4.

chandāya = pakkhapātena, Vin-a.771.

5.

ujjhāpanake; in full probably meaning “in making a monk look down upon another monk,” see Old Commentary, below.

6.

khīyanti. Khīyati (Sanskrit ksiyate) is explained in the Dictionaries to mean “to be exhausted, to waste away, to become dejected, to fall away from” (Pali-English Dictionary); “geht zu Ende” (Geiger, Pali Literature, p.115); “to wane, to decrease, to be diminished, to waste away, perish” (Monier-Williams). But Vin-a.296, Vin-a.771 gives pakāsenti, to show up, illustrate, explain, make known, give information about (Pali-English Dictionary). Cf. above, BD.2.2, n.4.

7.

khīyanake—i.e., the action of a person. Pali-English Dictionary calls this “a falling-away offence (legal term denoting the falling away from a consent once given),” as in Bu-Pc.79, Bu-Pc.81 (khīyadhamma); also see Vin.2.94, Vin.2.100, AN.iii.269, AN.iv.374.

8.

maṅku, literally staggering, so shock, confusion, shame; see AN.v.v. This trio also occurs below, BD.2.280.

9.

Cf. Vin.4.155. At Vin.2.176f. the qualifications that a monk appointed “distributor,” etc., should possess, are given. The items that the last, appamattakavissajjaka, is to dispose of, are enumerated at Vin.2.177. Cf. also AN.iii.275.

11.

These are the four agatis. Only a monk not endowed with them can be appointed a distributor of the various items mentioned here and in other parts of Vinaya. See Vin.2.176f.; also cf. the “silver-remover,” above, BD.2.104, the assigner of bowls, above, BD.2.122, and Vin.3.183, Vin.3.185; see BD.1.323, n.7, for further references.

12.

Cf. Vin.4.155.

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