Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On the duties to the preceptor

Kd.1.25.1 Now at that time monks, being without preceptors, not being exhorted, not being instructed, walked for almsfood wrongly dressed, wrongly clothed, not befittingly attired.[1] While people were eating, they held their almsbowls close above the soft food for the remains,[2] and they held their almsbowls close above the solid food for the remains, and they held their almsbowls close above the savoury food for the remains, and they held their almsbowls close above the beverages[3] for the remains, and having themselves asked for curry and boiled rice,[4] they ate it, and they remained in the refectory making a loud noise, a great noise.[5]

Kd.1.25.2 People … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, walk for almsfood, wrongly dressed, wrongly clothed, not befittingly attired? While people are eating, they hold their almsbowls close above the BD.4.58 soft food … and they remain in the refectory making a loud noise, a great noise, like brahmins at the meal-time of brahmins.”

Kd.1.25.3 Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Those who were modest monks, contented, conscientious, scrupulous desirous of training … spread it about, saying: “How can these monks walk for almsfood wrongly dressed … and remain in the refectory making a loud noise, a great noise?”

Kd.1.25.4 Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord, on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that monks walk for almsfood wrongly dressed … Vin.1.45 … and remain in the refectory making a great noise, a loud noise?”

“It is true, Lord.”

Kd.1.25.5 The awakened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“It is not fitting, monks, in these foolish men, it is not becoming, it is not proper, it is unworthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it is not to be done. How, monks, can these foolish men walk for almsfood … and remain in the refectory making a loud noise, a great noise? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased, nor for increasing (the number of) those who are pleased, but it is, monks, for displeasing those who are not (yet) pleased as well as those who are pleased, and for causing wavering in some.”

Kd.1.25.6 Then the Lord,[6] having rebuked these monks, having in many a figure spoken in dispraise of difficulty in supporting and maintaining oneself, of great desires, of lack of contentment, of clinging (to the obstructions), of indolence; having in many a figure spoken in praise of ease in supporting and maintaining oneself, of desiring little, of contentment, of expunging (evil), of punctiliousness, of graciousness, of decreasing (the obstructions), of putting forth energy, having given reasoned talk on what is fitting, on what is becoming, addressed the monks, saying:

“Monks, I allow a preceptor.[7] The preceptor, monks, should arouse in the one who shares his cell[8] the attitude of a BD.4.59 son[9]; the one who shares his cell should arouse in the preceptor the attitude of a father.[10] Thus these, living with reverence, with deference, with courtesy towards one another, will come to growth, to increase, to maturity in this dhamma and discipline.

Kd.1.25.7 “And thus, monks, should a preceptor be chosen[11]: having arranged the upper robe over one shoulder, having honoured his feet, having sat down on the haunches, having saluted with joined palms, he should speak to him thus: ‘Honoured sir, be my preceptor; honoured sir, be my preceptor; honoured sir, be my preceptor.’ If he[12] says: ‘Very well’ or ‘Certainly’ or ‘All right’ or ‘It is proper’ or ‘Manage it amiably’, and makes this understood by gesture, makes this understood by speech, makes this understood by gesture and by speech, the preceptor has been chosen; if he does not make this understood by gesture, if he does not make this understood by speech, Vin.1.46 if he does not make this understood by gesture and by speech, the preceptor has not been chosen.

Kd.1.25.8 “The one who shares a cell,[13] monks, should conduct himself properly towards the preceptor. This is the proper conduct in this respect: having got up early, having taken off his sandals,[14] having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, he should give tooth-wood,[15] he should give water for rinsing the mouth, he should make ready a seat. If there is conjey, having washed a bowl, the conjey should be placed near (the preceptor). When he has drunk the conjey, having given him water, having received the bowl, having lowered it,[16] having washed it properly without rubbing it, it should be put away. BD.4.60 When the preceptor has got up, the seat should be removed. If that place is soiled, that place should be swept.

Kd.1.25.9 “If the preceptor wishes to enter a village, his inner clothing[17] should be given (to him), the inner clothing (that he is wearing) should be received (from him) in return,[18] the girdle should be given (to him); having folded them[19] (into two or four folds), the outer robes are to be given[20] (to him); having washed it, a bowl with water[21] is to be given (to him). If the preceptor desires an attendant, (the latter) having put on his inner robe all round so as to cover the three circles,[22] having bound on the girdle, having folded them and having dressed in the outer robes, having fastened the ties, having washed, having taken a bowl, should be the preceptor’s attendant. He should not walk too far away (from him), he should not walk too close. He should receive the bowl and its contents.[23]

Kd.1.25.10 “He should not interrupt the preceptor when he is speaking. (But) if the preceptor is bordering on an offence, then speaking himself, he should warn him. When he[24] is returning,[25] he[26] should make a seat ready, having come back first; he should set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand[27]; BD.4.61 having gone to meet him, he should receive his bowl and robe, he should give back the inner clothing (given) in return, he should receive his inner clothing. If a robe is damp with perspiration, he should dry it for a short time in the sun’s warmth, but a robe should not be laid aside in the warmth. He should fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, having made the corners turn back four finger-breadths, he should fold up the robe thinking: ‘Mind there is no crease[28] in the middle.’ The girdle should be placed in a fold (of the robe).[29] If there comes to be almsfood and the preceptor wishes to eat,[30] having given him water, almsfood should be placed near (him).

Kd.1.25.11 “He should offer the preceptor drinking-water. When he has eaten, having given him water, having received the bowl, having lowered it,[31] having washed it properly without rubbing it, having emptied out the water, he should dry it for a short time in the sun’s warmth, but a bowl should not be laid aside in the warmth. He should lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying aside the bowl, having taken the bowl in one hand, having felt with the other hand under the couch or Vin.1.47 under the chair, the bowl should be laid aside, but the bowl should not be laid aside on the bare ground.[32] When laying aside a robe, having taken the robe in one hand, having stroked the other hand along the bamboo for robes or the cord for robes, having got the edges away from him and the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside.[33] When the preceptor has got up, the seat should be removed, the water for washing the feet, the foot-stool, the foot-stand should be put away. If that place comes to be soiled, that place should be swept.

Kd.1.25.12 “If the preceptor wishes to bathe, he should prepare a bath. If he wants a cold (bath), he should prepare a cold one; if he BD.4.62 wants a hot (bath), he should prepare a hot one. If the preceptor wishes to enter a bathroom[34], he should knead chunam should moisten clay[35]; taking a chair for the bathroom,[36] having gone close behind the preceptor, having given him the chair for the bathroom, having received his robe, he should lay it to one side. He should give him the chunam, he should give him the clay. If he is able to do so,[37] he should enter the bathroom. When he is entering the bathroom, having smeared his face with clay, having covered himself front and back, he should enter the bathroom.

Kd.1.25.13 “He should not sit down so as to encroach upon (the space intended for) monks who are elders.[38] He should not keep newly ordained monks from a seat. He should make preparation for the preceptor in the bathroom. When he is leaving the bathroom, taking the chair for the bathroom, having covered himself front and back, he should leave the bath-room. He should also make preparation for the preceptor in the water. When he is bathing, having come out (of the water) first, having dried his own body, having put on his inner robe, he should wipe off the water from the preceptor’s limbs, he should give him his inner clothing, he should give him his outer cloak[39]; taking the chair for the bathroom, having come back first, he should make ready a seat, he should put out water for washing the feet, a footstool, a footstand. He should offer the preceptor drinking-water.

Kd.1.25.14 “If he wishes to make him recite,[40] he should make him recite. If he wishes to interrogate,[41] he should be interrogated. In BD.4.63 whatever dwelling-place the preceptor is staying, if that dwelling-place is soiled, it should be cleaned if he[42] is able (to do so). When he is cleaning the dwelling-place, having first taken out the bowl and robes, he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet,[43] he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the mattress[44] and the squatting-mat,[45] he should lay them to one side.

Kd.1.25.15 “Having lowered the couch, having taken it out properly without rubbing it,[46] without knocking it against the door or the posts,[47] he should lay it to one side. Having lowered the chair, Vin.1.48 having taken it out properly without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the supports for the couch,[48] he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the spittoon,[49] he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the reclining-board,[50]he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the ground-covering,[51] having observed how it was laid down,[52] he should lay it to one side. If there come to be cobwebs in the dwelling-place, he should first remove them from the (floor-) covering[53]; he should wipe the corners[54] of BD.4.64 the window-holes.[55] If a wall that was coloured red[56] becomes stained, he should wipe it, having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If ground that was blacked[57] becomes stained he should wipe it, having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If the ground did not come to be treated, he should sweep it, having sprinkled it all over with water, thinking: ‘Take care lest the dwelling-place is sullied with dust.’ Having looked for (any) rubbish, he should remove it to one side.

Kd.1.25.16 “Having dried the ground-covering in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having brought it back, he should lay it down as it was laid down before. Having dried the supports for the couch[58] in the sun, having wiped them, having brought them back, he should place them where they were before. Having dried the couch in the sun … the chair in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having lowered it, having brought it back properly without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it down as it was laid down before. Having dried the mattress and the squatting-mat in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, he should lay them down as they were laid down before. Having dried the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, he should lay them down as they were laid down before. Having dried the spittoon in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, he should place it where it was before. Having dried the reclining-board in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, he should place it where it was before.

Kd.1.25.17 BD.4.65 “He should lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying aside the bowl … as in Kd.1.25.11 … the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside.

Kd.1.25.18 “If dusty winds blow from the east, he should close the eastern windows.[59] If dusty winds blow from the west, he should close the western windows. If dusty winds blow from the north, he should close the northern windows. If dusty winds blow from the south, Vin.1.49 he should close the southern windows. If the weather is cool, he should open the windows by day, he should close them at night. If the weather is warm, he should close the windows by day, he should open them at night.

Kd.1.25.19 “If a cell is soiled, the cell should be swept. If a porch[60] … If an attendance-hall[61] … If a fire-hall[62] … If a privy comes to be soiled, the privy should be swept. If there does not come to be drinking-water, drinking-water should be provided. If there does not come to be water for washing, water for washing should be provided. If there does not come to be water in the pitcher of water for rinsing,[63] water should be tipped into the pitcher of water for rinsing.

Kd.1.25.20 “If dissatisfaction[64] has arisen in the preceptor, the one who shares his cell should allay[65] it or should get (another) to allay[66] it, or he should give him a talk on dhamma. If remorse has arisen in the preceptor, the one who shares the cell should dispel it or should get (another) to dispel it, or he should give him a talk on dhamma. If wrong views have arisen in the preceptor, the one who shares his cell should dissuade him (from them) or should get another to dissuade him (from them),[67] or he should give him a talk on dhamma.[68]

Kd.1.25.21 “If the preceptor has committed an offence against an BD.4.66 important rule[69] and deserves probation,[70] the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order grant the preceptor probation?’ If the preceptor deserves to be sent back to the beginning,[71] the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order send the preceptor back to the beginning?’ If the preceptor deserves mānatta (discipline), the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order inflict mānatta (discipline) on the preceptor?’ If the preceptor deserves rehabilitation,[72] the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order rehabilitate the preceptor?’

Kd.1.25.22 “If the Order desires to carry out a (formal) act against the preceptor—one of censure[73] or one of guidance[74] or one of banishment[75] or one of reconciliation[76] or one of suspension[77]—the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order not carry out a (formal) act against the preceptor or change it to a lighter one?[78]’ Yet if a (formal) act—one of censure … one of suspension—is carried out by the Order against him, the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the preceptor conduct himself properly,[79] be subdued, mend his ways, (so that) the Order could revoke that (formal) act?’

Kd.1.25.23 “If the preceptor’s robe should be washed, the one who shares his cell should wash it or he should make an effort, Vin.1.50 BD.4.67 thinking: ‘How then could the preceptor’s robe be washed?’ If the preceptor’s robe-material should be made up, the one who shares his cell should make it up or he should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the preceptor’s robe-material be made up?’ If dye should be boiled for the preceptor … If the preceptor’s robe should be dyed … ‘… could the preceptor’s robe be dyed?’ When he is dyeing the robe, he should dye it properly, turning it again and again, nor should he go away if the drips have not ceased.[80]

Kd.1.25.24 “Without asking the preceptor (for permission), he should not give an almsbowl to anyone nor should he receive an almsbowl from anyone; he should not give a robe to anyone nor should he receive a robe from anyone; he should not give a requisite to anyone nor should he receive a requisite from anyone; he should not cut off anyone’s hair nor should he have his hair cut off by anyone; he should not render a service to anyone nor should he cause a service to be rendered by anyone; he should not execute a commission for anyone nor should he cause a commission to be executed by anyone; he should not become an attendant on anyone nor should he take anyone as an attendant; he should not bring back alms-food for anyone nor should he have almsfood brought back by anyone. Without asking the preceptor (for permission), he should not enter a village, he should not go to a cemetery, he should not leave the district.[81] If the preceptor becomes ill, he should tend him for as long as life lasts; he should wait (with him) until he recovers.[82]

Kd.1.25.25 Told is what is due to a Preceptor.

Footnotes and references:

1.

See Bu-Sk.1, Bu-Sk.2, Bu-Sk.3, Bu-Sk.4, Bu-Sk.23, Bu-Sk.24, and BD.2.369 for references. I think it is meant that they were not wearing their robes in the regulation ways.

2.

utiṭṭha-patta. Vin-a.977, as noted in Vinaya Texts i.152, gives two explanations of this phrase, the one connecting it with ucchittha, left over, rejected; the other with uṭṭhahati, to rise.

3.

Cf. Vin.3.72 (BD.1.124) for these four items.

4.

odana, one of the five soft foods (Vin.4.83).

6.

Cf. this passage with Vin.3.21 (BD.1.37).

7.

upajjhāya; Sanskrit upadhyāya, a tutor.

8.

saddhivihārika, literally one who stays, resides, lives with (another), a co-resident, and so a pupil in the same vihāra.

9.

puttacitta, a son’s mind. Cf. SN.iv.110f., mātucitta bhaginīcitta dhītucitta, the mind of a mother, sister, daughter.

10.

pitucitta, a father’s mind.

11.

gahetabbo, literally should be taken. But words for “choosing” were almost lacking, and gaṇhāti was often made to do duty for them.

12.

I.e. the preceptor, see Vin-a.977.

13.

From here to BD.4.67 below, = Vin.2.223–227.

14.

Vin-a.977 says he might have worn these for pacing up and down or for keeping his feet clean if he had got up early.

15.

dantakaṭṭha, as used by Indians today, a piece of wood. Allowed at Vin.2.138. Vin-a.977 says that the saddhivihārika, the one who shares a cell, having brought a large, a middle-sized and a small one—whatever he (the preceptor) takes of these is for three days, and then on the fourth, day he should be given the same again.

16.

nīcaṃ katvā. So as not to let drops of water from inside the bowl spoil his robes when one is washing it; in the case of an earthen bowl it might break if dropped from a height.

17.

nivāsana; possibly another word for antaravāsaka, the putting on of which is denoted by nivāseti, cf. BD.2.1, n.2, BD.2.32, n.2, n.3.

18.

paṭinivāsanaṃ paṭiggahetabbaṃ. Vin-a.978 is silent. Vinaya Texts i.155 suggests “house-dress?”. This would mean some kind of robe in addition to the three regulation ones. Bohtlingk and Roth, and Monier-Williams also both give “a kind of garment, for Buddhists”. It would look as if a monk might, and indeed must, enter village in a nivasāna, but not in a paṭinivāsana. I doubt the separate existence of such a garment. I suggest it is a nivasāna that is simply changed for another when a monk sets out on the begging round. If he has a change of nivasāna he could not be a tecīvarika. Monks in Ceylon often change their robes before they go out.

19.

saguṇaṃ katvā. As at Kd.18.4.3. Vin-a.789 says “having made two robes of one” (i.e. having put two robes together), “two outer cloaks (saṅghāṭiyo) are to be given. Every robe is called a saṅghati if it is put together, saṅghāṭittā”. It thus seems that saṅghāṭi here stands both for the outer cloak and for the upper robe, uttarāsanga; not for the inner robe, however, since this, under the name nivāsana, had probably been given to the preceptor already. Usually there is only one robe called saṅghāṭi.

20.

saṅghāṭiyo, literally outer cloaks. See above note.

21.

sa-udako means with the drops of water remaining in the bowl after rinsing it, not drying it.

23.

pattapariyāpanna. Vin-a.978 says that if the bowl is warm or heavy with the conjey or rice received, the one who shares a cell should take the preceptor’s bowl and give him his own.

24.

Presumably the preceptor.

25.

To the monastery from the alms-round.

26.

Presumably the one who shares a cell.

28.

bhaṅga, breaking, splitting, dissolution, destruction. Vin-a.979 indicates that if the robe were folded up in the same crease every time, it would wear thin along that crease.

29.

obhoga. Vin-a.979 says “having folded up the girdle, it should be laid aside having arranged it in a fold (bhoga) of the robe”.

30.

Vin-a.979 says that this would only be if he had failed to obtain almsfood in the village; in this case the one who shares his cell should bring him the almsfood which he himself had obtained.

31.

So as not to get dusty, Vin-a.979.

32.

So as not to get dusty, Vin-a.979.

33.

Vin-a.980, he is not to lay it aside by taking hold of the edges and throwing the robe over bamboo or cord, or the fold might be damaged by coming into contact with a wall.

34.

jantāghara, see Vinaya Texts i.157, n.2; iii.103. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.183, calls jantāghara, “a common bath”, and jantāgharasālā, “bath-rooms”.

35.

Clay for use on the face in the bath-room allowed at Vin.2.120.

36.

Allowed at Vin.2.120.

37.

Vin-a.980, if he is not ill. The bathroom must have been full of hot steam, and juniors as much as seniors had to be careful to protect their faces with a smearing of clay.

38.

Cf. Vin.4.42, where monks must not lie down in the space meant for elders, and see BD.2.247, n.3. This expression and the next also occur at Kd.18.4.2.

39.

saṅghāṭi, perhaps here meaning the upper robe as well as the outer cloak, although then the plural might have been expected. See above, BD.4.60, n.3.

40.

No doubt meaning, if the preceptor wishes to make the one who shares the cell recite the Pātimokkha or give an exposition of the eight chief rules, cf. BD.2.271, n.1.

42.

I.e. the one who shares a cell.

43.

nisīdanapaccattharaṇa. Cf. BD.2.34, n.1, BD.2.46, n.3, BD.2.244, n.6.

46.

Vin-a.980, without rubbing it on the ground.

47.

kavāṭapiṭṭha. Vin-a.980 explains as “not touching the door (kavāṭa) and the door-posts” (piṭṭhasaṅghāṭa). On kavāṭa and piṭṭhasaṅghāṭa see BD.2.258, n.3, n.8, and A.K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol.48, No.3, p.256 (under dvāra). Kavāṭa allowed at Vin.2.142, and kavāṭapiṭṭhasaṅghāṭa at Vin.2.153, Vin.2.154.

48.

A couch and a chair might have removable legs; cf. BD.2.240. See BD.4.64, n.4.

49.

Allowed at Vin.2.175.

50.

apassenaphalaka, a board for resting the head, arms or elbows upon. Allowed at Vin.2.175. Some made of stone can be found at the entrance to dwelling-places among the ancient remains at Anuradhapura.

51.

bhummattharaṇa; cf. BD.2.46, n.4.

52.

Paññatta; same word as is used for “laying down” a rule of training, see BD.2.4, n.1.

53.

ullokā paṭhamaṃ ohāretabbam. Not, I think, “he should remove them as soon as he sees them”, as at Vinaya Texts i.159 and as favoured by Pali-English Dictionary. For ulloka occurs at Vin.2.151 as meaning a cloth or covering for a couch or chair, and was something that could be spread, santharati. Thus it probably has a technical meaning, and is one of the numerous kinds of “cloths”. Buddhaghosa on Vin.2.151 explains it as cilimika; and this he explains at Vin-a.775 as something made for preserving the texture of earth which is prepared with plaster.

54.

Vin-a.980, of the room. But it seems more probable that the corners of the window-holes are intended.

55.

ālokasandhi. Cf. BD.2.258 and n.2; BD.2.259 and n.1.

56.

gerukaparikammakata. Geruka is yellow ochre or red chalk. Cf. BD.2.259 and n.3.

57.

Cf. BD.2.259. Setavaṇṇa, whitewash or plaster, the third colouring (with red and black) allowed for use in vihāras (Vin.2.150) is not included above.

58.

Allowed at Vin.2.150. It seems that these supports were detachable from the couches, for first they were to be taken out and put in the sun, and then the couch was to be taken out. Vinaya Texts iii.278, n.3, says that the couch “was supported on movable tressels—the paṭipādakā”, but A.K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 48, No. 3, p.265, sees “no reason why the paṭipādakā of a mañca should not be fixed legs”. On the other hand, āhaccapādaka (of couches and chairs) seems to mean “removable legs”, Bu-Pc.14, and Vin.2.149.

59.

vātapāna, see BD.2.259, n.1. Three kinds allowed at Vin.2.148.

60.

koṭṭhaka, or gate-house, or store-room, allowed at Vin.2.142, Vin.2.153.

61.

upaṭṭhānasālā, allowed at Vin.2.153. See BD.2.194, n.4.

62.

aggisālā, allowed at Vin.2.154.

63.

ācamanakumbhī, allowed at Vin.2.142.

64.

anabhirati, see BD.1.114, n.1; and Vin.1.144.

65.

vūpakāsetabbā. Vin-a.981 says that he should take him elsewhere.

66.

vūpakāsāpetabbā. Another monk should be told: ‘Having taken the elder, go elsewhere’, Vin-a.981. Cf. Vin.1.142 (= below, BD.4.190).

67.

Cf. Vin.1.142 (= below, BD.4.190).

68.

For above passage cf. AN.v.72, where competence in these matters is one of the qualifications a monk must possess in order to confer the upasampadā ordination.

69.

At Vin.4.51, one of the qualities a monk must possess in order to exhort the nuns is that of not having offended against an “important rule”, garudhamma. There were eight “important rules” to be kept by nuns; see BD.2.266, n.11 and BD.4.267. But, above, the important rules seem to refer to Saṅghādisesa, for what follows; probation, etc., are among the penalties for breaking Saṅghādisesa rules.

70.

parivāsa, cf. BD.1.196, n.3, and Vin.1.143, Vin.2.31ff. Not the same parivāsa as that granted to members of other sects on their wishing to enter the Order, see below, BD.4.85.

71.

Cf. BD.1.196, n.4, and for mānatta BD.1.196, n.5, and Vin.1.143.

72.

abbhāna, cf. BD.1.196, n.6; BD.3.28, n.4.

73.

tajjaniya. Cf. Vin.1.143, Vin.2.2ff. See Vin.1.325, AN.i.99 and Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.170, for this and the four following formal acts.

74.

nissaya, tutelage. Cf. Kd.11.9.1ff.

75.

pabbājaniya. Cf. Kd.11.13.1ff.

76.

paṭisāraniya. Cf. Kd.11.18.1ff.

77.

ukkhepaniya. Cf. Kd.11.25.1ff.

78.

Vin-a.981 indicates that the one who shares the cell should do his best to plead with the monks to cancel the formal act. But if they insist, he should beg the preceptor to conduct himself properly.

79.

Cf. BD.1.323 and its n.1, n.2, n.3 for these expressions.

80.

acchinne theve. Vin-a.981 says “he should not depart if even a little dye is falling down.” Proper methods for dyeing robe-material given at Vin.1.286.

81.

disā pakkamitabbā. Cf. Kd.2.21.1 where ignorant monks travelling to distant parts, disaṃgamikā, do not ask teachers and preceptors for permission.

82.

vuṭṭhānassa, until he gets up from his illness, Vin-a.982. Cf. Vism.94.

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