Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 14

Bu-Pc.14.1.1 BD.2.238 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time, monks preparing lodgings[1] in winter-time in the open air, drying their bodies in the sun, when the time was announced,[2] setting forth neither removed[3] them nor had them removed, (but) set forth without having asked (for permission).[4] The lodgings became damp.[5] Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying:

“How can monks, preparing lodgings in the open air, setting forth, neither remove them nor have them removed, (but) set forth without having asked (for permission, so that) the lodgings are (left) damp?”

Then these monks told this matter to the lord …

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that monks preparing lodgings in the open air … (left) damp? … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk, spreading[6] or having spread in the BD.2.239 open air a couch or a chair or a mattress or a stool[7] belonging to the Order, setting forth, should neither remove it nor have it removed, or should go away without asking (for permission), there is an offence of expiation.”

And thus this rule of training for monks came to be laid down by the lord.


Bu-Pc.14.1.2 Now at that time monks, staying in the open air, were bringing back[8] lodgings early in the morning. Now the lord saw these monks bringing back lodgings early in the morning, and seeing them, in this connection, on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

I allow you, monks, for the eight months (of the time) not appointed for keeping the rains[9] Vin.4.40 to put aside lodgings in a hut[10] or at the foot of a tree, wherever crows or vultures do not leave droppings.[11]


Bu-Pc.14.2.1 Whatever means: … is monk to be understood in this case.

Belonging to the Order means: it comes to be given to the Order, handed over to it.[12]

BD.2.240 Couch means:[13] there are four (kinds of) couch: a long one,[14] one with slats,[15] one with curved legs,[16] one with removable legs.[17]

Chair means: there are four (kinds of) chair: a long one, one with slats, one with curved legs, one with removable legs.[18]

Mattress means: there are five (kinds of) mattress: a mattress (made) of wool, a mattress (made) of cotton-cloth, a mattress (made) of bark, a mattress (made) of tina-grass, a mattress (made) of leaves.[19]

Stool means: made of bark or made of khus-khus[20] or made of muñja-grass or made of reeds[21]; it is bound, having tucked them in.[22]

Spreading means: himself spreading.

BD.2.241 Having spread[23] means: making another spread. If he makes one who is not ordained spread (it), it is an impediment[24] for him.[25] If he makes one who is ordained spread it, there is an impediment for the one who spreads (it).[26]

Setting forth, should neither remove it means: should not himself remove it.

Nor have it removed means: should not make another remove it.

Or should go away without asking (for permission) means: not asking a monk or a novice or a monastery attendant (for permission),[27] if he goes further than the outward stone-throw of a man of average height,[28] there is an offence of expiation.


Bu-Pc.14.2.2 If he thinks that it belongs to the Order[29] when it belongs to the Order, spreading it or having it spread in the open, setting forth should neither remove it nor have it removed, or should go away without asking (for permission), there is an offence of expiation. If he is in doubt as to whether it belongs to the Order … there is an offence of expiation. If he thinks that it belongs to an individual when it belongs to the Order, spreading it or … in the open air … without having asked (for permission), there is an offence of expiation. If it is a carpet[30] or a bed-cover[31] or a ground- BD.2.242 covering[32] or a straw-mat[33] or an animal’s skin[34] or a mat for the feet[35] or a wooden chair,[36] spreading it or having it spread in the open air, setting forth should neither remove it nor have it removed, or should go away without having asked (for permission), there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that it belongs to the Order when it belongs to an individual, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether it belongs to an individual, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that it belongs to an individual when it belongs to an individual (but) to another individual, there is an offence of wrong-doing; if it belongs to the individual himself, there is no offence.


Bu-Pc.14.2.3 There is no offence if, having removed it, he goes away; if, having caused it to be removed, he goes away; if, having asked (for permission), he goes away; if, drying himself in the sun, he goes away[37]; if it comes to be taken possession of by something[38]; if there are accidents[39]; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.

The Fourth

Footnotes and references:

1.

A definition of senāsana given at Vb.251 is a catalogue of things to sit and lie on, various types of buildings, caves, etc. It does not include seyyā, obviously thought of as a senāsana, below, BD.2.244. Vb-a.365 merely says that if he sleeps and sits there, it is a “lodging.”

2.

Vin-a.770 says, “for the gruel meal.”

3.

uddharati. Same word as ubbhata (+ kaṭhina) of Bu-NP.1Bu-NP.3

4.

anāpucchā. Cf. āpucchā and anā° at Vin.4.100, Vin.4.101, Vin.4.165, Vin.4.166. Cf. also Vin.2.211, where monks set out without asking permission as to the lodgings. It is there said, and cf. Old Commentary, below, that a monk, or, failing him, a probationer, or, failing him, a monastery-attendant should be asked for permission; this is in order that such a person may take care of the lodgings during the monks’ absence.

5.

ovaṭṭham hoti. Vin-a.770 says that what remained became damp owing to the snow and rain. Ovaṭṭha occurs above, BD.2.224, in connection with heaps of clay and soil.

6.

santharitvā. Cf. above, BD.2.72, n.1, but not used in that sense here.

7.

koccha. See Old Commentary, below. Vinaya Texts i.34, n., says, “it is apparently therefore of wicker work.” Called at Vinaya Texts iii.165 (= Vin.2.149) “a cane-bottomed chair.” Allowed at Vin.2.149.

8.

atiharanti, or removing from one place to another.

9.

avassika-saṃkete. At Vin.1.298 vassika-saṃkete is one of the five occasions when a monk may lay aside his outer cloak. Saṃketa at BD.1. was rendered “rendezvous”—i.e., an appointment, an appointed time. See Vinaya Texts ii.234, note on this word. At Vin.1.107 it is an offence of wrong-doing to recite the Pātimokkha in cell after cell without making a rendezvous or appointment (asaṃketena), since incoming monks did not know where the uposatha was to be held. Vin-a.772 says that the four months of the cold and the four months of the hot seasons are the eight months not thus appointed (evaṃ apaññatte) as months of the rains.

10.

maṇḍape. Vin-a.772 says, “a maṇḍapa (shed or hut) of sākhā (branches), or a maṇḍapa of padara (boards, planks of wood; or this might be a maṇḍapa in a crevice).

11.

N.B.—This is not a sikkhāpada, rule, but an anujānāmi, “allowance.”

12.

Cf. above, BD.2.161.

13.

This definition of mañca occurs at Vin.4.168, Vin.4.169; Vb-a.365. These four kinds of couches and four kinds of chairs are allowed at Vin.2.149.

14.

masāraka. Vin-a.773 says, “it is made by boring a hole into the feet of the couch, and putting a knotched end through there.”

15.

bundikābaddha. Vin-a.773 says, “it is made by holding the bedstead together, having burnt the feet of the couch with knotched ends.”

16.

kuḷīrapādaka, or carved. Vin-a.773, “made with feet like the feet of horses, rams, etc. Whatever has curved feet (vaṅkapādako, literally curved as to the feet) is called kuḷīrapadaka” (literally a crab-footer.)

17.

āhaccapādaka. Vin-a.774 says that “it is made by piercing the leg (aṅge). Then having pierced the knotched end, putting a knot through there, and giving a pin (or peg, āṇiṃ) above, the couch that is made should be called an āhaccapādaka.” This probably means that the pin can be removed at pleasure, when the couch would collapse. At Vin.4.46 it is defined as aṅge vijjhitvā ṭhito hoti, standing, having pierced the leg—i.e., having put the pin through. Āhacca-pādaka means literally a “take-away footer”—i.e., one whose feet can be taken away.

18.

= Vin.4.168, Vin.4.169, Vb-a.365.

19.

Same definition given at Vb-a.365. These five kinds of bhisi are allowed at Vin.2.150. Cf. above, BD.2.47, n.1, on bhisi.

20.

usīra, one of the plants “propagated from roots,” cf. above, BD.2.228.

21.

babbaja, or bulrushes. Shoes made of this and of muñja-grass were not to be worn, Vin.1.190.

22.

anto saṃveṭhetvā baddhaṃ hoti. Vin-a.774 says that it is bound in the middle and spread out above and below. The middle, being made of the hides of lions and tigers, gives the senāsana the appearance of being made of gold.

23.

Causative.

24.

palibodha, or obstacle, obstruction. Cf. Vinaya Texts ii.157, n.2.

25.

Vin-a.774, for the one who causes it to be spread out.

26.

santhāraka, at Vin.2.113, Vin.2.116, Vin.2.148, meaning a (tiṇa-grass) mat. Here it must refer to the person spreading out the things.

27.

Cf. Vin.2.211.

30.

cimilikā. At Vin.2.150 monks are allowed to use cola, cotton-cloth, as a cilimikā. Editor, Vinaya Texts iii.167, n.2, says, cilimika may be a “rug … It is probably the same word as, or connected with, cimilikā.” See same note for Buddhaghosa’s definition of this word. Here he says, Vin-a.775, when the earth is prepared with plaster it is made for preserving its texture, spreading it below, they spread out a kaṭasāraka (a mat for sitting on or lying on) above.

31.

uttaratharaṇa, see above, BD.2.46, n.3.

32.

bhummattharaṇa, see above, BD.2.46, n.4.

33.

taṭṭikā. Vin-a.776 says, “made of palm-leaves or of bark.” Cf. Ja.1.141, Vism.97.

34.

cammakhaṇḍa. At Vin.2.122 this was allowed as a water vessel (vāraka). Above it means a skin used as a mat, as at Mil.366 and Vism.99 (translated Path of Purity, p.115, “piece of leather”).

35.

pādapuñchanī. At Vin.2.174 monks are allowed to use a bear-skin, a piece of drapery (cakkali), and a little piece of cloth as a pādapuñchanī. This, according to Vinaya Texts iii.218, is a mat to wipe the feet on, not to sit upon. Vin-a.776 says that it is made of rope and rags for wiping the feet on.

36.

Phalaka-pīṭha, a chair (made) of a board, plank or slips of wood. Also called at Vin-a.776 dārumayapīṭha, a chair made of wood.

37.

otāpento gacchati. Vin-a.776 says there is no offence if, drying himself in the heat of the sun, he thinks, ‘Coming back I will remove it.’

38.

kenaci palibuddhaṃ hoti. Vin-a.776 says that if a senior monk, turning (the owner) out (uṭṭhāpetvā), takes it, if a yakkha or a departed one, coming along, sits on it, or if some ṛṣi, coming along, takes it, or if lions and tigers stand on it, the lodging becomes taken possession of.

39.

āpadāsu—i.e., Vin-a.777 says there is no offence if there are accidents (antarāya) to those leading the brahma-life for their life-time. Cf. Bu-Pc.15, Bu-Pc.16